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Applications of Stochastic Geometry in Image Analysis

Marie‐Colette N.M. van Lieshout

in New Perspectives in Stochastic Geometry

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232574
eISBN:
9780191716393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232574.003.0013
Subject:
Mathematics, Geometry / Topology

A discussion is given of various stochastic geometry models (random fields, sequential object processes, polygonal field models) which can be used in intermediate‐ and high‐level image analysis. Two ... More


Statistical Inference in MEG Distributed Source Imaging

Dimitrios Pantazis and Richard M. Leahy

in MEG: An Introduction to Methods

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195307238
eISBN:
9780199863990
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307238.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter reviews the statistical tools available for the analysis of distributed activation maps defined either on the 2D cortical surface or throughout the 3D brain volume. Statistical analysis ... More


Spatial Smoothing, Interactions and Geoadditive Regression

Ludwig Fahrmeir and Thomas Kneib

in Bayesian Smoothing and Regression for Longitudinal, Spatial and Event History Data

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199533022
eISBN:
9780191728501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533022.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

This chapter provides an introduction to Bayesian spatial smoothing as a subject of interest in its own right, it points out the close relation between modelling interactions and spatial effects, and ... More


Relaxor ferroelectrics

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Relaxors are site‐ and charge‐disordered crystals or solid solutions where charge disorder induces random fields. They are characterized by the appearance of polar nanoclusters that are much smaller ... More


Theory Unification and Graphical Models in Human Categorization

David Danks

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Many different, seemingly mutually exclusive, theories of categorization have been proposed in recent years. The most notable theories have been those based on prototypes, exemplars, and causal ... More


Ferroelectric polymers

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The physical properties of ferroelectric polymers, like polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers are briefly discussed. It is shown that polar nanoclusters are induced either by compositional ... More


Essentials to Understand Probabilistic Graphical Models: A Tutorial about Inference and Learning

Christine Sinoquet

in Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709022
eISBN:
9780191779619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

The aim of this chapter is to offer an advanced tutorial to scientists with no background or no deep background on probabilistic graphical models. To readers more familiar with these models, this ... More


EFFECT OF THE COULOMB INTERACTION ON THE ELECTRON ENERGY SPECTRUM

V.F. Gantmakher

in Electrons and Disorder in Solids

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567561
eISBN:
9780191718267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567561.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Different examples of self-action of the electron gas onto its own energy spectrum are considered. In a regular structure, it is the Peierls transition when a minigap in the spectrum appears to ... More


Bayesian Models for Variable Selection that Incorporate Biological Information *

Marina Vannucci and Francesco C. Stingo

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0022
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Variable selection has been the focus of much research in recent years. Bayesian methods have found many successful applications, particularly in situations where the amount of measured variables can ... More


Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Raphaël Mourad (ed.)

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709022
eISBN:
9780191779619
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

At the crossroads between statistics and machine learning, probabilistic graphical models provide a powerful formal framework to model complex data. Probabilistic graphical models are probabilistic ... More


Gaussian multiplicative chaos and Liouville quantum gravity

Rémi Rhodes1 and Vincent Vargas2

in Stochastic Processes and Random Matrices: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 104, July 2015

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198797319
eISBN:
9780191838774
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797319.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The purpose of this chapter is to explain the probabilistic construction of Polyakov’s Liouville quantum gravity using the theory of Gaussian multiplicative chaos. In particular, this chapter ... More


Carnapian Inductive Logic for Markov Chains

Brian Skyrms

in From Zeno to Arbitrage: Essays on Quantity, Coherence, and Induction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199652808
eISBN:
9780191745829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652808.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In his Nachlass, Carnap listed outstanding problems for the development of inductive logic. One was the treatment of what he called “analogy by proximity”. This can be handled naturally along ... More


Probabilistic Semi-Supervised Clustering with Constraints

Basu Sugato, Bilenko Mikhail, Banerjee Arindam, and Mooney Raymond

in Semi-Supervised Learning

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0005
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter discusses a problem resulting from certain clustering tasks from which limited supervision is obtained in the form of pairwise constraints—semi-supervised clustering. Semi-supervised ... More


Molecular Population Genetics

Daniel L. Hartl

in A Primer of Population Genetics and Genomics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198862291
eISBN:
9780191895074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198862291.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Chapter 7 is an introduction to molecular population genetics that includes the principal concepts of nucleotide polymorphism and divergence, the site frequency spectrum, and tests of selection and ... More


Detection of Copy Number Variations from Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Data Using Linear-chain Conditional Random Field Models

Xiaolin Yin and Jing Li

in Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709022
eISBN:
9780191779619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.003.0016
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

Copy number variation (CNV) accounts for roughly 12% of the human genome. Beside their inherent role in cancer development, CNVs have been reported to underlie susceptibility to complex diseases. ... More


Graphical Modeling of Biological Pathways in Genome-wide Association Studies

Min Chen, Judy Cho, and Hongyu Zhao

in Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709022
eISBN:
9780191779619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.003.0012
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are widely used to identify good candidates of disease-associated genes that are of interest for further follow-up studies. However, knowledge of biological ... More


Cyclic models and recurrent neural networks

Thomas P. Trappenberg

in Fundamentals of Machine Learning

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780198828044
eISBN:
9780191883873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198828044.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses models with cyclic dependencies. There are two principle architectures that are discussed. The first principle architecture of cyclic graphs comprises directed graphs similar ... More


Statistical inference with probabilistic graphical models

Devavrat Shah

in Statistical Physics, Optimization, Inference, and Message-Passing Algorithms: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics: Special Issue, October 2013

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198743736
eISBN:
9780191803802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198743736.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces graphical models as a powerful tool to derive efficient algorithms for inference problems. When dealing with complex interdependent variables, inference problems may become of ... More


Using Molecular Data to Detect Selection: Signatures from Multiple Historical Events

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198830870
eISBN:
9780191868986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830870.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter examines the search for a pattern of repetitive adaptive substitutions over evolutionary time. In contrast with the previous chapter, only a modest number of tests toward this aim have ... More


Upscaling, Computational Aspects, and Statistics of the Velocity Field

Yoram Rubin

in Applied Stochastic Hydrogeology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195138047
eISBN:
9780197561676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195138047.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Oceanography and Hydrology

This chapter deals with computing the velocity fields in heterogeneous media. This is a broad area, and we shall concentrate here on upscaling, on the spatial ... More


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