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Introduction: Stories of the Birth of Modern Alchemy

Mark S. Morrisson

in Modern Alchemy: Occultism and the Emergence of Atomic Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195306965
eISBN:
9780199785414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306965.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology

This introductory chapter begins with a brief history of alchemy. It then discusses the alchemical revival in occult circles, which helped inform and was profoundly shaped by the emerging science of ... More


Systems Containing only a Single Nucleus

Finn Aaserud and John L. Heilbron

in Love, Literature, and the Quantum Atom: Niels Bohr’s 1913 Trilogy Revisited

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199680283
eISBN:
9780191760228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680283.003.0016
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter presents Part II of a paper by Niels Bohr on systems containing a single nucleus. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 deals with the configuration and stability of the systems. ... More


New knowledge for new purposes

Sean F. Johnston

in The Neutron's Children: Nuclear Engineers and the Shaping of Identity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199692118
eISBN:
9780191740732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692118.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter surveys the intellectual and geographical terrain of early nuclear energy and introduces themes that will be at the core of the book. In setting the scene, it argues that international ... More


Nuclear specialists at work

Sean F. Johnston

in The Neutron's Children: Nuclear Engineers and the Shaping of Identity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199692118
eISBN:
9780191740732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692118.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

For practising engineers, the most pragmatic expression of technical identity was defined in the workplace. This chapter focuses on nuclear specialists via their jobs. During the 1950s, workers from ... More


Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century

Samuel Walker

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520223288
eISBN:
9780520924840
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520223288.001.0001
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

How much radiation is too much? This book examines the evolution, over more than a hundred years, of radiation protection standards and efforts to ensure radiation safety for nuclear workers and for ... More


It Isn't Fair: Environmental Pollution Disasters and Community Relocations

Moore Colleen F.

in Silent Scourge: Children, Pollution, and Why Scientists Disagree

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195153910
eISBN:
9780199846986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153910.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter examines crises and disasters that resulted from environmental pollution. It deals with pollution related to radioactivity and chemical wastes. In each of the pollution crises, people ... More


Isotope Geochemistry

Thomas S. Bianchi

in Biogeochemistry of Estuaries

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195160826
eISBN:
9780197562048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195160826.003.0015
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

There is a broad spectrum (approximately 1700) of radioactive isotopes (or radionuclides) that are useful tools for measuring rates of processes on Earth. The term nuclide is commonly used ... More


Cold War Sex War, Or the Other Being Inside: Burroughs, Paley, Plath, Hughes

Adam Piette

in The Literary Cold War, 1945 to Vietnam

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748635276
eISBN:
9780748651771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748635276.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

This chapter discusses the conflicting views of male and female writers on the Cold War nuclear programme. It looks at the mothers's concern that the nuclear tests were releasing radioactivity into ... More


Euroepiphanies

Eugene Halton

in The Great Brain Suck: And Other American Epiphanies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226314655
eISBN:
9780226314679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226314679.003.0011
Subject:
Sociology, Culture

Sometimes a crisis tests one's mettle and fires one's soul. This chapter presents a story of coping with fallout, Chernobyl-style. These reflections are offered from the author's journal, written ... More


Radium and the Secret of Life

Luis A. Campos

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226238272
eISBN:
9780226238302
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226238302.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Radium and the Secret of Life reveals the numerous and powerful interconnections between radium and life in the first half of the twentieth century: in the early history of the physics and chemistry ... More


Strange Rays

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on the initiatives of various physicists and chemists to explore the strange new rays called X-rays that were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. The decade of the 1890s was a ... More


An Hourglass of Great Precision

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0006
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter takes a historical look at the experiments carried out by Ernest Rutherford to determine the age of the Earth. In 1903, Rutherford performed an experiment in which he separated the alpha ... More


Geochronology

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0007
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter considers the progress made by scientists in their efforts to calculate the age of the Earth. To Kelvin and Ernest Rutherford, the age of the Earth and its constituent rocks and minerals ... More


Artificial Radioactivity

Roger H. Stuewer

in The Age of Innocence: Nuclear Physics between the First and Second World Wars

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198827870
eISBN:
9780191866586
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198827870.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

Frédéric Joliot discovered artificial radioactivity on January 11, 1934, when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles and produced a radioactive isotope of phosphorus that decayed by ... More


A Very Trusting Man

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0010
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter examines Alfred Wegener's theory on continental drift. Wegener's ideas are encapsulated in his 1929 book, in which he showed that contraction, permanence, and land bridges between ... More


The Birth of Living Radium

Luis A. Campos

in Radium and the Secret of Life

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780226238272
eISBN:
9780226238302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226238302.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explores how the powerful association between radium and life first “came to life”: in the earliest biological metaphors and metaphysics of early radioactivity research; in pre-existing ... More


Scientific Internationalism and Scientific Nationalism

Melinda Baldwin

in Making "Nature": The History of a Scientific Journal

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226261454
eISBN:
9780226261591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226261591.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter focuses on the relationship between scientific publishing and scientific internationalism at the turn of the twentieth century. Nature’s speed of publication made the journal an ... More


D.O.A.: Fatality, Sexuality, Radioactivity

Robert Miklitsch

in The Red and the Black: American Film Noir in the 1950s

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780252040689
eISBN:
9780252099120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040689.003.0005
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

If iridium, the nuclear subtext of Rudolph Maté’s D.O.A. (1950) is oblique from an atomic perspective, from another, generic perspective (say, the classic investigative narrative of film noir), it’s ... More


“Black Film” and the Bomb: Spies and “Cowboys,” Red Professors and Thieves

Robert Miklitsch

in The Red and the Black: American Film Noir in the 1950s

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780252040689
eISBN:
9780252099120
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040689.003.0006
Subject:
Film, Television and Radio, Film

In the prototypical ‘50s nuclear noir, the protagonist is an elite scientist—a nuclear physicist, to be precise—who’s either overtly opposed to or intimately aligned with the nation state and its ... More


Physics and Genes: From Einstein to Delbrück

William C. Summers (ed.)

in Creating a Physical Biology: The Three-Man Paper and Early Molecular Biology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780226767826
eISBN:
9780226762777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226762777.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter begins by discussing the content of the Three-Man Paper (3MP): In it, Nikolai Timoféeff-Ressovsky, the geneticist, outlined the biological problem concerning the nature of the mutation ... More


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