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Germany: The Radical Aufklärung

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0034
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

As in France and England, it was specifically in the 1670s that academics, theologians, and philosophers in Germany first became seriously alarmed by what was perceived as a sudden, powerful upsurge ... More


Introduction

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of radical thought in the Early Enlightenment. It argues that Europe's war of philosophies during the Early Enlightenment down to 1750 was never ... More


Society, Institutions, Revolution

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0003
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins with a discussion of whether there is a social dimension that helps explain the timing and psychological origins of the rise of radical thought. It cites the invaluable role of ... More


The Problem of Equality

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0021
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on the idea of equality, one of the most divisive and potentially perplexing of all basic concepts introduced by the Radical Enlightenment into the make-up of modernity. ... More


The Radical Impact in Italy

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0035
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) and Paolo Mattia Doria (1662–1746) are often characterized as ‘anti-moderns’ and it is not hard to see why. Cartesianism initiated the assault on received ideas and ... More


The Death of the Devil

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0021
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

During the last third of the 17th century, the scene was set for a vast triangular contest in Europe between intellectual conservatives, moderates, and radicals over the status of the supernatural in ... More


From La Mettrie to Diderot

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0037
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

The two authors who most effectively summed up the radical thought of the early Enlightenment era in the middle of the 18th century were both Frenchmen — La Mettrie and the famous chief editor of the ... More


Censorship and Culture

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter discusses the impact of censorship — secular and ecclesiastical — on the rise of the radical thought in Europe, as well as, in a different way, on the moderate Enlightenment. While it is ... More


Leibniz and the Radical Enlightenment

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0026
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Leibniz was unsurpassed as a philosophical critic and observer of his age. He showed consummate discernment in interpreting new intellectual developments wherever in Europe they arose, often, as with ... More


Epilogue: Rousseau, Radicalism, Revolution

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0038
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

The French Revolution overtly challenged the three principal pillars of medieval and early modern society — monarchy, aristocracy, and the Church — going some way to overturning all three. Inevitably ... More


The Horizon of Anarchy: Radical Politics in the Wake of Marx

Saul Newman

in The Politics of Postanarchism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748634958
eISBN:
9780748652846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748634958.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter takes up this notion of politics outside the state, showing the relevance of this idea to continental radical thought today and situating anarchism within debates among continental ... More


Germany and the Baltic: the ‘War of the Philosophers’

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0029
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

While the decisive split in the mainstream moderate Enlightenment in Germany and the Baltic occurred only with the banning of Wolff's philosophy by the Prussian Crown in 1723, signs of growing ... More


Women, Philosophy, and Sexuality

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins with a discussion of how the shift of intellectual debate in Europe from Latin to French, and from the academic sphere to courts, coffee-houses, clubs, and salons, enabled some ... More


Spinoza’s System

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Spinoza's prime contribution to the evolution of early modern Naturalism, fatalism, and irreligion was his ability to integrate within a single coherent or ostensibly coherent system, the chief ... More


Reaping the Whirlwind: Radical Talk and the Problem of Justice

Alastair Bellany and Thomas Cogswell

in The Murder of King James I

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300214963
eISBN:
9780300217827
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300214963.003.0019
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

The 1626 dissolution of Parliament was the key turning point of Charles's reign. Frustrated in their desire for justice and convinced of Buckingham's role in James'murder, many of Charles' subjects ... More


Boulainvilliers and the Rise of French Deism

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0030
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Neither Cartesianism nor its offshoot Malebranchisme, nor any indigenous French philosophical tradition survived beyond the first quarter of the 18th century as a serious contender in the fight to ... More


The Spinozistic Novel in French

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0032
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

The interchange between the Netherlands and France which played so large a part in the formation of Early Enlightenment radical thought was a two-way transmission, not only of works of philosophy and ... More


The Learned Journals

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter discusses how periodicals emerged as a powerful machine undermining traditional structures of authority, knowledge, and doctrine. Everywhere, awareness of new ideas and knowledge, new ... More


Spinoza, Science, and the Scientists

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0014
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

The most important and exceptional element in Spinoza's scientific thought is simply that natural philosophy, or science, is of universal applicability and that there is no reserved area beyond it. ... More


Publishing a Banned Philosophy

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0016
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

By the mid-1670s Spinoza stood at the head of an underground radical philosophical movement rooted in the Netherlands but decidedly European in scope. His books were illegal but yet, paradoxically, ... More


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