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Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Jonathan I. Israel

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Arguably the most decisive shift in the history of ideas in modern times was the complete demolition during the late 17th and 18th centuries — in the wake of the Scientific Revolution — of ... More


Introduction

Ann Thomson

in Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early Enlightenment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199236190
eISBN:
9780191717161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236190.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter situates the book's subject in relation to current debates and provides a methodological and historiographical overview of the various questions studied. It looks at interpretations of ... More


Early Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Modern Age

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter discusses how the same social inequalities, hierarchy, economic hardship, and political forms which fed social discontent and frustration in the 18th century already existed, at least in ... More


Philosophy and the Making of Modernity

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0002
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins by considering the alleged gap between Spinoza’s philosophy and the ‘Spinozism’ rife in the Early Enlightenment. It argues that Early Enlightenment ‘Spinozism’ was broadly ... More


Germany and the Baltic: Enlightenment, Society, and the Universities

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins with a discussion of the spread of philosophical ‘atheism’ in the middle of the 18th century. It then discusses how Spinoza provided the scaffolding which held up the German ... More


The Triumph of the ‘Moderate Enlightenment’ in the United Provinces

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0015
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins with a discussion of the rise and fall of a Dutch- and French-language movement of Radical Enlightenment characterized as the Spinosisten or Spinosistes. It then considers how the ... More


The Problem of Equality

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0021
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on the idea of equality, one of the most divisive and potentially perplexing of all basic concepts introduced by the Radical Enlightenment into the make-up of modernity. ... More


Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early Enlightenment

Ann Thomson

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199236190
eISBN:
9780191717161
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236190.001.0001
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Examining the development of a secular, purely material conception of human beings in the early Enlightenment, this book provides a fresh perspective on the intellectual culture of this period, and ... More


The ‘Unvirtuous Atheist’

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0031
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter focuses on physician-philosopher, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, who was involved in a remarkable and prolonged controversy affecting the course of the Radical Enlightenment in the ... More


Religious Philosophers and Speculative Atheists

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Hume's early critics strongly associated the skepticism of the Treatise with “atheistic” or anti‐Christian intentions. Moreover, they took Clarke's philosophy to be a particularly obvious and ... More


From ‘History of Philosophy’ to History of l’Esprit humain

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0019
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter begins with a discussion of the revolutionary new idea of ‘l’histoire de l’esprit humain’ as a unitary process encompassing the whole of the human condition — an idea developed by Bayle, ... More


The Learned Journals

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0007
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter discusses how periodicals emerged as a powerful machine undermining traditional structures of authority, knowledge, and doctrine. Everywhere, awareness of new ideas and knowledge, new ... More


The Intellectual Drama in Spain and Portugal

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0028
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

From the 1680s onwards, the spread of Cartesianism, Malebranchisme, and other branches of the New Philosophy in Spain and Portugal generated a profound intellectual turmoil followed by a process of ... More


Leenhof and the ‘Universal Philosophical Religion’

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0022
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Frederik van Leenhof (1647–1712) is almost forgotten today, even in the Netherlands, and historians of the European Enlightenment rarely mention him. Yet there are excellent reasons for rescuing him ... More


Spinoza’s System

Jonathan I. Israel

in Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206088
eISBN:
9780191676970
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.003.0013
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

Spinoza's prime contribution to the evolution of early modern Naturalism, fatalism, and irreligion was his ability to integrate within a single coherent or ostensibly coherent system, the chief ... More


The Radical Enlightenment of Spinoza and Kant

Nancy Levene

in Powers of Distinction: On Religion and Modernity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780226507361
eISBN:
9780226507675
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226507675.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

Chapter 6 takes up the Enlightenment critics Spinoza and Kant, who give us a radical Enlightenment in arguments for the connection of religion and reason: that both are subject to the elementary ... More


The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Paul Russell

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Although it is widely recognized that David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature (1739‐40) belongs among the greatest works of philosophy, there is little agreement about the correct way to interpret ... More


The Varieties of Enlightened Experience

Dale K. Van Kley

in God in the Enlightenment

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780190267070
eISBN:
9780190267100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190267070.003.0013
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter traces the belated origins of the concept of a single “Enlightenment” as characterizing intellectual developments during eighteenth-century Europe. It then exploits the recent ... More


The Myth of “Castration” and the Riddle's Solution

Paul Russell

in The Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195110333
eISBN:
9780199872084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195110333.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter aims to provide a summary account of the nature and significance of the irreligious interpretation of the Treatise. The solution to the riddle of the Treatise begins with a critique of ... More


Constructing Theories

Nicholas Tampio

in Kantian Courage: Advancing the Enlightenment in Contemporary Political Theory

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780823245000
eISBN:
9780823250707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823245000.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter argues that Kantian constructivism may help contemporary political theorists generate new ideas and principles. The chapter isolates four activities of constructivism: inventing ... More


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