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“Our goal is to have one classification—American”: Vouchers for Schools and the Multiracial Census

Desmond S. King and Rogers M. Smith

in Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama's America

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691142630
eISBN:
9781400839766
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691142630.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

This chapter considers two of the most important foundational systems in American life: public education, and governmental classification of the population in terms of race and ethnicity. Education ... More


National Colors: Racial Classification and the State in Latin America

Mara Loveman

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199337354
eISBN:
9780199379491
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199337354.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

The era of official color-blindness in Latin America has come to an end. For the first time in decades, nearly every state in Latin America now asks their citizens to identify their race or ethnicity ... More


Race and Opportunity in the Transition from School to Higher Education in South Africa

Michael Cosser

in Discrimination in an Unequal World

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199732166
eISBN:
9780199866144
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732166.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the school-to-higher education transition to ascertain the extent to which grade 12 learners of all races have been able to fulfill their aspirations of proceeding to higher ... More


Introduction and Overview

Kenneth Prewitt

in What Is "Your" Race?: The Census and Our Flawed Efforts to Classify Americans

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691157030
eISBN:
9781400846795
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157030.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This introductory chapter discusses how there was a racial classification scheme in America's first census (1790), as there was in the next twenty-two censuses, up until the present. Though the ... More


Curious Kinks

Justin E. H. Smith

in Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691153643
eISBN:
9781400866311
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691153643.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter engages with current philosophical accounts of racial categories, paying particular attention to the relevance for recent philosophy of both social constructionism as well as the ... More


Classifying Colonial Subjects

Mara Loveman

in National Colors: Racial Classification and the State in Latin America

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780199337354
eISBN:
9780199379491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199337354.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

Chapter 2 describes how Spanish and Portuguese imperial states classified their subjects in colonial Latin America. Ethnoracial classification was central to the extractive aims of the Spanish and ... More


Introduction: What Is Race?

Ann Morning

in The Nature of Race: How Scientists Think and Teach about Human Difference

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520270305
eISBN:
9780520950146
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520270305.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

The primary purpose of this book is to explore how scientists' concepts of race are transmitted to the public through formal education as well as other institutions. The scientific enterprise is ... More


Whitening Revisited: Nineteenth-Century Cuban Counterpoints

Karen Y. Morrison

in Africans to Spanish America: Expanding the Diaspora

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252036637
eISBN:
9780252093715
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252036637.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, African Studies

This chapter examines the question of whitening as a process that required both family and nation to force ideological and behavioral commitments on individuals. Focusing on race-making behaviors in ... More


Determining the Legitimacy of Laws That Use Racial/Ethnic Classifications

Roger J.R. Levesque

in The Science and Law of School Segregation and Diversity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190633639
eISBN:
9780190633653
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190633639.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Under the US Constitution, the government must ensure that individuals receive the equal protection of laws. This mandate, however, becomes challenging in that equal protection may be different ... More


Empirical Assessments of the Implementation of Laws Addressing School Segregation and Diversity

Roger J.R. Levesque

in The Science and Law of School Segregation and Diversity

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190633639
eISBN:
9780190633653
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190633639.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter analyzes research related to the necessity of remedial approaches as well as potential alternatives to addressing racial disparity and the segregation of schools. These constitute ... More


Capturing “Mixed Race” in the Decennial UK Censuses: Are Current Approaches Sustainable in the Age of Globalization and Superdiversity?

Peter J. Aspinall and Miri Song

in Global Mixed Race

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814770733
eISBN:
9780814770474
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814770733.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter discusses ethnic and racial classification systems in U.K., focusing on England and Wales census classification of “mixed” people. The 2001 Census enumerated a total of 661,034 “Mixed” ... More


The Contested Meanings and Intersections of Race

Janet K. Shim

in Heart-Sick: The Politics of Risk, Inequality, and Heart Disease

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814786833
eISBN:
9781479866748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814786833.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter describes epidemiologists' and lay people's discontent with racial classification, with special attention to a subtle but significant distinction in the source of their dissatisfaction. ... More


How Do Multiracial People Identify Their Children?

Miri Song

in Multiracial Parents: Mixed Families, Generational Change, and the Future of Race

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9781479840540
eISBN:
9781479843367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479840540.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter investigates how multiracial people identify their children and what guides their choices. Do participants of various mixed backgrounds differ in how they identify their children? Are ... More


Introduction: Representational Static

Janet Neary

in Fugitive Testimony: On the Visual Logic of Slave Narratives

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780823272891
eISBN:
9780823272945
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823272891.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

Using contemporary artwork as a lens onto the textual visuality of 19th-century slave narratives, this introduction to Fugitive Testimony works backwards historically to excavate ex-slave narrators’ ... More


What Is Diversity?

Mona Sue Weissmark

in The Science of Diversity

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780190686345
eISBN:
9780197522912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190686345.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology

This introductory chapter traces the history of ideas about race and human classification systems, from the bible to the Classical period and on to the first “scientific” attempts to rank differences ... More


Introduction: How Science Embraced the Racialization of Human Populations

Sheldon Krimsky

in Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231156974
eISBN:
9780231527699
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231156974.003.0014
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This introductory chapter briefly examines the persistence of the concept of human races within science and the impact of the concept on disparities among people of different geographical ancestries. ... More


Disciplining Difference: A Selective Contemporary History of Cardiovascular Epidemiology

Janet K. Shim

in Heart-Sick: The Politics of Risk, Inequality, and Heart Disease

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814786833
eISBN:
9781479866748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814786833.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the contemporary social and historical development of cardiovascular epidemiology. Given that epidemiology is at a historic moment in its development—social and genetic ... More


From Casta to Californio, II: Social Identities in Late Spanish and Mexican-Era Alta California

Barbara L. Voss

in The Archaeology of Ethnogenesis: Race and Sexuality in Colonial San Francisco

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780813061252
eISBN:
9780813051277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813061252.003.0004
Subject:
Archaeology, Historical Archaeology

The ethnogenesis of Californio identity in Alta California was a multi-generational process. This chapter presents evidence of the emergence of Californio identities among military settlers during ... More


A Critical Analysis of Racial Categories in the Age of Genomics: An Introduction

Kazuko Suzuki and Diego A. von Vacano

in Reconsidering Race: Social Science Perspectives on Racial Categories in the Age of Genomics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780190465285
eISBN:
9780190465315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190465285.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory, Comparative Politics

This introduction discusses perspectives on race after the genomics revolution, which posed a serious question to those who had accepted the synthetic or nonnatural foundations of the idea and the ... More


“No Gulf between a Chan and a Smith amongst Us”: Charles Graham Anderson’s Manifesto for Eurasian Unity in Interwar Hong Kong

Emma Jinhua Teng

in Eurasian: "Mixed Identities in the United States, China, and Hong Kong, 1842-1943"

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780520276260
eISBN:
9780520957008
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520276260.003.0017
Subject:
History, Asian History

Chapter 8 takes up the question of whether mixed-race subjects really challenge or deconstruct race, as some assert, or simply reconfigure racial formations along different lines through the ... More


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