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The Legal Profession

Hiroshi Oda

in Japanese Law

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199232185
eISBN:
9780191705335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232185.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

This chapter focuses on the legal profession in Japan. Judges, public prosecutors, and attorneys form a distinct group of professions called the hōsō. All members of the hōsō are required to pass the ... More


Eurojust and the European Public Prosecutor in the Corpus Juris Model: Water and Fire?

Christine Van den Wyngaert

in Europe's Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199274659
eISBN:
9780191699771
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274659.003.0005
Subject:
Law, EU Law

Because crime in today's society may extend its operations internationally, domestic law and various institutions that aim to enforce such law are not enough in protecting citizens against crimes of ... More


Criminal Prosecution: Cash for Convictions

Nicholas R. Parrillo

in Against the Profit Motive: The Salary Revolution in American Government, 1780-1940

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780300176582
eISBN:
9780300187304
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300176582.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Legal History

This chapter looks at criminal justice, which was another realm in which lawmakers experimented intensely with bounties as instruments of state-building before ultimately rejecting them. The focus is ... More


The Role of the Public Prosecutor in Applying and Developing the Substantive Criminal Law

Jonathan Rogers

in The Constitution of the Criminal Law

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199673872
eISBN:
9780191752032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199673872.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter focuses on the effects of criminalization decisions on the decision-making process in the public prosecutor's office. It argues that the public prosecutor should have a role in ... More


Making Agencies Accountable

in Making Law Matter: Environmental Protection and Legal Institutions in Brazil

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804758239
eISBN:
9780804783101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804758239.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter shows how prosecutorial enforcement makes environmental law matter by making environmental agencies accountable. The first section discusses the various instruments that prosecutors may ... More


Effective Enforcement: Brazil and Beyond

in Making Law Matter: Environmental Protection and Legal Institutions in Brazil

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804758239
eISBN:
9780804783101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804758239.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

The success of prosecutorial enforcement in Brazil has depended on having prosecutors with a relatively high level of political independence from the executive branch. In São Paulo, where state ... More


Arbitrary Justice: The Power of the American Prosecutor

Angela J. Davis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195384734
eISBN:
9780199852369
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384734.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

What happens when public prosecutors, the most powerful officials in the criminal justice system, seek convictions instead of justice? Why are cases involving well-to-do victims often prosecuted more ... More


Can Animals Sue?

Cass R. Sunstein

in Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195305104
eISBN:
9780199850556
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305104.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

This chapter addresses the question of whether animals should be allowed to sue. It argues that, at a minimum, lawsuits should be permitted, on animals' behalf, to ensure compliance with existing ... More


Environmental Protection and the Rule of Law

in Making Law Matter: Environmental Protection and Legal Institutions in Brazil

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804758239
eISBN:
9780804783101
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804758239.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Environmental and Energy Law

This chapter begins with a discussion of environmental regulation in developing countries. Environmental regulation refers to the set of rules developed by regulatory agencies to implement ... More


A Mixed Economy of Prosecutions: The 1880s

James Taylor

in Boardroom Scandal: The Criminalization of Company Fraud in Nineteenth-Century Britain

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695799
eISBN:
9780191749520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695799.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Economic History

The establishment of the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) in 1880 raised hopes that the state would take a more active role in prosecuting company frauds. And indeed the first holder of the new ... More


Offences Against the State: The 1870s

James Taylor

in Boardroom Scandal: The Criminalization of Company Fraud in Nineteenth-Century Britain

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695799
eISBN:
9780191749520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695799.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Economic History

This chapter shows that the higher frequency of company fraud prosecutions witnessed in the late 1860s was maintained in the new decade. Like the earlier trials, most revolved around that most ... More


Universal Jurisdiction: Conflict and Controversy in Norway

Selman-Ayetey Julia

in The Hidden Histories of War Crimes Trials

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199671144
eISBN:
9780191751516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671144.003.0013
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Legal History

This chapter discusses the law of universal jurisdiction and its application in Norway in the case of Public Prosecutor v Mirsad Repak. It examines constitutional issues raised by the case and ... More


The Legal Profession

Hiroshi Oda

in Japanese Law

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198869474
eISBN:
9780191905810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198869474.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Comparative Law

Judges, public prosecutors, and attorneys form a distinct group of professions which is called the hōsō. Japan has a uniform bar examination for judges, public prosecutors, and attorneys. Successful ... More


Regulating the City: The 1890s

James Taylor

in Boardroom Scandal: The Criminalization of Company Fraud in Nineteenth-Century Britain

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695799
eISBN:
9780191749520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695799.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Economic History

The Winding-up Act of 1890 had implications for the punishment of fraud. Whereas the burden of deciding whether to prosecute had previously fallen on the DPP alone, now the decision was shared, ... More


Epilogue: Following the Victorian Path

James Taylor

in Boardroom Scandal: The Criminalization of Company Fraud in Nineteenth-Century Britain

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199695799
eISBN:
9780191749520
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695799.003.0010
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Economic History

As well as drawing general conclusions, this chapter extends coverage of the subject into the twentieth century. It uses the trial of Whitaker Wright in 1904 to highlight how far the law had changed ... More


Article 86 TFEU

Wolfgang Bogensberger

in The EU Treaties and the Charter of Fundamental Rights: A Commentary

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198794561
eISBN:
9780191927874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198759393.003.176
Subject:
Law, EU Law

In the absence of unanimity in the Council, a group of at least nine Member States may request that the draft regulation be referred to the European Council. In that case, the procedure in the ... More


The Frequency of Criminal Prosecutions

Wolfgang P. Müller

in The Criminalization of Abortion in the West: Its Origins in Medieval Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450891
eISBN:
9780801464157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450891.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter pursues quantitative issues along three different trajectories. First, it questions the validity of statistical analyses that measure the recurrence of crime (as opposed to crime ... More


Exclusion from the proceedings

Winfried Tilmann

in Unified Patent Protection in Europe: A Commentary

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198755463
eISBN:
9780191927706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198755463.003.0459
Subject:
Law, Intellectual Property, IT, and Media Law

This Rule is self-explanatory. Exclusion from the proceedings is taken by the Court as a means of final recourse after one or more formal warnings have been issued. Exclusion should not be issued ... More


Article 2 Material scope

Herke Kranenborg

in The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): A Commentary

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198826491
eISBN:
9780191932267
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198826491.003.0004
Subject:
Law, EU Law

The protection afforded by this Regulation should apply to natural persons, whatever their nationality or place of residence, in relation to the processing of their personal data. This Regulation ... More


The Netherlands: National Correspondents: Prof Reinout Vriesendorp and Rick van Dommelen

in Rescue of Business in Europe: A European Law Institute Instrument

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2021
ISBN:
9780198826521
eISBN:
9780191932274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198826521.003.0034
Subject:
Law, EU Law

There is no established practise for facilitating out-of-court workouts in Dutch bankruptcy law. However, Dutch private law does allow for an out-of-court composition (buitengerechtelijk akkoord or ... More


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