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The Ascendancy of the Party in Public Office: Party Organizational Change in Twentieth‐Century Democracies

Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair

in Political Parties: Old Concepts and New Challenges

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246748
eISBN:
9780191599385
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246742.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Concerned with the development of party organizations in twentieth‐century democracies, and deals specifically with the shifting balance of power between what has earlier been termed the three ... More


Beyond Debate: Venality in the Public Mind

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The growth of venality in France was accompanied at every stage by public controversy. In 1688, as Louis XIV prepared to launch a war whose costs would push the sale of public offices to its greatest ... More


Blueprint Policy

Amy G. Mazur

in Theorizing Feminist Policy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246724
eISBN:
9780191599859
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246726.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In the first section, the analysis defines the general feminist aims and parameters of the sub‐area of Blueprint Policy. It then discusses the range and timing of policies found in the 13 countries ... More


What Can We Do About It?

Nicholas Carnes

in The Cash Ceiling

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691182001
eISBN:
9780691184203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691182001.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter uses what has been learned about America's cash ceiling in the previous chapters to sort through the various reform proposals that observers have floated throughout the years. Some are ... More


Unforeseen Necessities: The Government and Venality, 1768–1788

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

No serious attempt was ever made by ministers of ancien régime France to eliminate venality from public life. It is true that, to the public at large, the spectacular attacks of René Nicolas Charles ... More


Honour for Money: Venality in Society

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0006
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

In France, men would acquire public offices only because they brought tangible and worthwhile advantages, or because there was no alternative. Most often the decisive reason was the latter. Offices ... More


Ambiguities of Abolition: The Revolution and Venality

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The members of the National Assembly who abolished the sale of public office in August 1789 were no strangers to venality. Of the 1,315 deputies who sat between 1789 and 1791, 483 either held, or had ... More


Why Don’t Workers Run?

Nicholas Carnes

in The Cash Ceiling

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691182001
eISBN:
9780691184203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691182001.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter explores the personal or micro-level factors that discourage qualified workers from running for public office. Using surveys of citizens, candidates, and political party leaders, it ... More


Money for Honour: Offices in the Market

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

If few buyers of public offices thought only of the financial return on their investment, equally few gave it no thought at all. For that vast majority who enjoyed no gages and who acquired an office ... More


Venality: A French Addiction

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0001
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The night of August 4, 1789 is justly remembered as the most radical legislative session of the entire French Revolution, when the National Assembly abolished or condemned many of the customs and ... More


Archomania: Venality at the Limit, 1689–1722

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The great war, which Louis XIV began when he invaded the Rhineland in September 1688, lasted nine years, forcing all the powers involved to marshal their resources more effectively than ever before. ... More


Government by the Privileged

Nicholas Carnes

in The Cash Ceiling

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691182001
eISBN:
9780691184203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691182001.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter opens the discussion on why working-class Americans—people employed in manual labor, service industry, or clerical jobs—almost never go on to hold political office in the United States. ... More


Fielding’s Legacy: Police Reform in the 1780s

J. M. Beattie

in The First English Detectives: The Bow Street Runners and the Policing of London, 1750-1840

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199695164
eISBN:
9780191738746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695164.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter is concerned with the consequences of a serious crime wave in the years following the war in America and the government’s decision to introduce preventive measures to diminish the level ... More


What’s Stopping Them?

Nicholas Carnes

in The Cash Ceiling

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691182001
eISBN:
9780691184203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691182001.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter aims to shed light on the gates that keep workers out of office in the United States. Elections themselves appear to be the root cause. The analysis focuses on the two features of ... More


Epilogue: The Persistence of Venality

William Doyle

in Venality: The Sale of Offices in Eighteenth-Century France

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198205364
eISBN:
9780191676598
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205364.003.0010
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

Two centuries after the Constitution of 1791 proclaimed its abolition, something close to venality of public offices continues to operate in crucial areas of French life. In one of those areas it ... More


Sir John Fielding and the Making of the Bow Street Runners, 1754–1765

J. M. Beattie

in The First English Detectives: The Bow Street Runners and the Policing of London, 1750-1840

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199695164
eISBN:
9780191738746
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199695164.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Explains how with government financial help Fielding established the first public magistrates’ office in the metropolis. The chapter also examines his organizing his office as a collection point for ... More


The General Prosecutor between the Judicial and Executive Authorities

Abdallah Khalil

in Judges and Political Reform in Egypt

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9789774162015
eISBN:
9781617970993
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774162015.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

With the establishment of the mixed courts in 1875, Egypt became the first Arab country to incorporate the office of the general prosecutor into its legal system. Since then, that office has been ... More


Party elites and the domestic discourse on the EU

Nicolò Conti

in The Europe of Elites: A Study into the Europeanness of Europe's Political and Economic Elites

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199602315
eISBN:
9780191738951
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199602315.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines the attitudes of the party central office towards the EU through a study of their Euromanifestos. The analysis allows us to assess the level of congruence between the attitudes ... More


Richard Bruce Wernham, 1906–1999

G. W. Bernard

in Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 124. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows, III

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263204
eISBN:
9780191734205
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263204.003.0019
Subject:
History, Historiography

Bruce Wernham was born on 11 October 1906 at Ashmansworth, near Newbury, Berkshire, the son of a tenant farmer. He attended St Bartholomew's Grammar School, which he remembered with affection all his ... More


Benjamin Collins: The Man behind the Newspapers

C. Y. Ferdinand

in Benjamin Collins and the Provincial Newspaper Trade in the Eighteenth Century

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198206521
eISBN:
9780191677199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206521.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter discusses the career of Benjamin Collins of the Salisbury Journal. It details Collins' many enterprises, which included other newspapers with London titles and a competing Wessex ... More


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