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Assembly of a Minimal Protocell

Steen Rasmussen, James Bailey, James Boncella, Liaohai Chen, Gavin Collis, Stirling Colgate, Michael DeClue, Harold Fellermann, Goran Goranović, Yi Jiang, Chad Knutson, Pierre-Alain Monnard, Fouzi Mouffouk, Peter E. Nielsen, Anjana Sen, Andy Shreve, Arvydas Tamulis, Bryan Travis, Pawel Weronski, William H. Woodruff, Jinsuo Zhang, Xin Zhou, and Hans Ziock

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter explores the various efforts to synthesize protocell precursors. It introduces the two possibilities for replicating the nucleic acid genome of a synthetic protocell: spontaneous ... More


Toward a Critical Evaluation of Protocell Research

Christine Hauskeller

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter reviews some product-directed aims of protocell research and describes which ethical issues are likely to be the most salient to the governance of protocell science. It argues that the ... More


The Early History of Protocells: The Search for the Recipe of Life

Martin M. Hanczyc

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This book discusses the methods and conditions to produce protocells. The production of a protocell requires the combination of an appropriate mix of nonliving molecules, let them react, and ... More


Steps Toward a Synthetic Protocell

Martin M. Hanczyc, Irene A. Chen, Peter Sazani, and Jack W. Szostak

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter presents graphical representations that help characterize and classify the essential functional features of several protocell research efforts. It shows how graphical representations can ... More


Population Analysis of Liposomes with Protein Synthesis and a Cascading Genetic Network

Takeshi Sunami, Kanetomo Sato, Keitaro Ishikawa, and Tetsuya Yomo

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the assembly of a minimal self-replicating protocell. It centers on the minimal thermodynamic coupling between the three functional structures: container, metabolism, and ... More


Models of Protocell Replication

Ricard V. Solé, Javier Macía, Harold Fellermann, Andreea Munteanu, Josep Sardanyés, and Sergi Valverde

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter attempts to model protocell production under the general perspective of autopoiesis. An example of an autopoietic system is a living cell that is capable of self-generation and ... More


Gánti’s Chemoton Model and Life Criteria

James Griesemer and Eörs Szathmáry

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses the basic energetics of the living state. The main energy sources used by living systems, such as photochemistry, thermally activated electron transfer, fermentation, and ... More


Wet Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

in Artificial Chemistries

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029438
eISBN:
9780262329460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.003.0019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

We will first examine some possible ways to build wet artificial cells and their components, starting with alternative nucleic acids and amino acids. Alternatives to the existing genetic code are ... More


Digital Evolution and the Emergence of Complexity

John Johnston

in The Allure of Machinic Life: Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262101264
eISBN:
9780262276351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262101264.003.0006
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence

This chapter charts the history of artificial life (ALife) after Langton in relation to theories of evolution, emergence, and complex adaptive systems by examining a series of experiments carried out ... More


Protocell Patents: Property Between Modularity and Emergence

Alain Pottage

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter determines some distinctive aspects of protocell patents, and explores how protocell patents disturb the political and institutional foundations of the current intellectual property ... More


Open Evolution and Human Agency: The Pragmatics of Upstream Ethics in the Design of Artificial Life

George Khushf

in The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262012621
eISBN:
9780262255301
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262012621.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Bioethics

This chapter argues that ethical reflection must be an integral part of the development of protocell science and technology. It presents a representative example of a body of research in artificial ... More


Experimental Approaches to Fabricating Artificial Cellular Life

David Deamer

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter provides a historical overview of experimental attempts to create protocells. It discusses the first cell models and their important contributions to protocell research. These include ... More


Origin of Life and Lattice Artificial Chemistry

Naoaki Ono, Duraid Madina, and Takashi Ikegami

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

Constructive biology aims to artificially construct a system that does not exist in nature but that has some biological features. The construction of a replicating system with compartments, for ... More


Compositional Lipid Protocells: Reproduction without Polynucleotides

Doron Lancet and Barak Shenhav

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter presents computational models of protocell replication and fissioning. It reviews basic replicator dynamics, self-replication spots, physical models of amphiphile aggregates, and models ... More


Evolutionary Microfluidic Complementation Toward Artificial Cells

John S. McCaskill

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter discusses a protocell model devoid of polynucleotides. It also considers the notion of compositional information, in an attempt to answer the question of how information could be ... More


Peptide Nucleic Acids as Prebiotic and Abiotic Genetic Material

Peter E. Nielsen

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter presents some of the experimental evidence for replication at the molecular level. It discusses molecular replicators in terms of enzyme-catalyzed replication, minimal molecular ... More


Early Ancestors of Existing Cells

Andrew Pohorille

in Protocells: Bridging Nonliving and Living Matter

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262182683
eISBN:
9780262282093
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262182683.003.0025
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

This chapter addresses protocell research from the perspective of nonlinear chemical dynamical systems. It assumes that early cell ancestors were formed before the genetic code for protein synthesis ... More


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