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The European Union and National Politics

Vivien A. Schmidt

in Democracy in Europe: The EU and National Polities

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199266975
eISBN:
9780191709012
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199266975.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The chapter begins with a brief sketch of the EU’s representative politics in comparison with national politics. It then examines the EU’s effects on national politics generally as well as ... More


To Keep or To Change First Past The Post?: The Politics of Electoral Reform

André Blais (ed.)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539390
eISBN:
9780191715761
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539390.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

The book addresses the following questions: What fosters or hinders reform of first past the post? When and why does reform emerge on the political agenda? Who proposes and who opposes reform? When ... More


How Votes Are Counted

Josep M. Colomer

in Political Institutions: Democracy and Social Choice

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241835
eISBN:
9780191598975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924183X.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Voting rules producing a single absolute winner include unanimity, majority, and plurality rules. Multiple winners are created, in contrast, by electoral systems of proportional representation and ... More


Proportional Representation: Critics of the British Electoral System 1820-1945

Jenifer Hart

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198201366
eISBN:
9780191674860
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201366.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Political History

This book is a scholarly history of the proportional representation movement. The book explores its origins in the early 19th century and analyses the contribution of political thinkers such as ... More


The Origin of Political Institutions

Alberto Alesina and Edward Glaeser

in Fighting Poverty in the US and Europe: A World of Difference

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199267668
eISBN:
9780191602153
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199267669.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter explores the history of American and European political institutions to gain insight on the reasons behind the differences in their welfare policies. It focuses on the history of ... More


Electoral Reform in Bolivia: Origins of the Mixed‐Member Proportional System

René Antonio Mayorga

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In 1994, Bolivia undertook a major constitutional and electoral reform, in which a closed‐list proportional representation (PR) system for the Lower House of the Congress was replaced by a ... More


Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems, and Democratization

Pippa Norris

in The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246465
eISBN:
9780191600135
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246467.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Summarizes the key assumptions in consociational theories of democracy, enumerates the key propositions to be explored, and describes the data and research methods to be employed. It then compares ... More


The Consequences of Mexico's Mixed‐Member Electoral System, 1988–1997

Jeffrey A. Weldon

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mexico has experimented with mixed‐member electoral systems for many years, is probably the second oldest mixed‐member system after Germany, and has modified its mixed system more than any other ... More


Mixed‐Member Electoral Systems: A Definition and Typology

Matthew Soberg Shugart and Martin P. Wattenberg

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mixed‐member electoral systems are described as a mixture of two principles of electoral system design: majoritarian systems, which usually have single‐seat districts with plurality rule and tend to ... More


Hung Parliaments and Proportional Representation

Vernon Bogdanor

in The Monarchy and the Constitution

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293347
eISBN:
9780191598821
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293348.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

Despite Britain's first past the post‐electoral system, which generally produces single‐party majorities, Britain has become more politically fragmented in recent years. This makes a hung ... More


Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Matthew Soberg Shugart and Martin P. Wattenberg (eds)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This is a series (Comparative Politics) for students and teachers of political science that deals with contemporary issues in comparative government and politics. In the view of many electoral ... More


Inherent and Contingent Factors in Reform Initiation in Plurality Systems *

Matthew Søberg Shugart

in To Keep or To Change First Past The Post?: The Politics of Electoral Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539390
eISBN:
9780191715761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539390.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Electoral reform may be explained through a model that incorporates both inherent and contingent factors. An electoral system has an inherent tendency towards “systemic failure,” understood as ... More


Choosing Socially Efficient Institutions

Josep M. Colomer

in Political Institutions: Democracy and Social Choice

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241835
eISBN:
9780191598975
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924183X.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Three types of political regimes are evaluated for their success in establishing stable and durable democracies. These are parliamentarism with majority electoral rules, parliamentarism with ... More


Cross‐Country Comparisons: Legislative and Executive Inclusion

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

A comparative analysis is given of both actual and simulated election results of the five country case studies (from Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) presented in the book, along ... More


Reforming Electoral Systems in Mexico

Juan Molinar Horcasitas and Jeffrey A. Weldon

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mexico has a long experience with highly majoritarian variants of mixed‐member systems, but has recently been made more proportional in a process of democratization. Electoral reform has developed ... More


Restructuring Urban Democracy amid the Great Depression

Daniel O. Prosterman

in Defining Democracy: Electoral Reform and the Struggle for Power in New York City

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195377736
eISBN:
9780199979158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377736.003.0003
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 2 argues that reformers’ definition of democracy shifted in the late nineteenth century to incorporate the broader electorate as crucial participants in what they labeled a “good-government” ... More


Choosing an Electoral System 1

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This is the third of four chapters that discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the research on democratization in southern Africa that is described in the book, and deals with the theoretical ... More


Electoral Systems—Simple and Complex

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

To allocate seats to candidates or parties, even a simple electoral system must specify at least the following: the total number of seats in the assembly (assembly size); the number of seats ... More


Proportional Representation and the Practice of Democracy in New York City

Daniel O. Prosterman

in Defining Democracy: Electoral Reform and the Struggle for Power in New York City

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780195377736
eISBN:
9780199979158
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195377736.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

Chapter 3 examines the immediate aftermath of the electoral reform movement’s greatest victory in the United States. Withstanding a series of legal challenges, the city conducted its first PR ... More


New Zealand: The Consolidation of Reform?

Jack Vowles

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

New Zealand experienced fundamental electoral system reform in the mid-1990s when voters, in a referendum, decided to replace the single-member plurality system by proportional representation ... More


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