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Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Michael Bergmann

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Virtually all philosophers agree that for a belief to be epistemically justified, it must satisfy certain conditions. Perhaps it must be supported by evidence, or perhaps it must be reliably formed, ... More


Proper Function

Michael Bergmann

in Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter defends an externalist analysis of justification, focusing on its proper function requirement. It identifies three ways a popular evidentialist view needs improvement, and argues that ... More


Warrant and Proper Function

Alvin Plantinga

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078640
eISBN:
9780199872213
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078640.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this book and in its companion volumes, Warrant: The Current Debate and Warranted Christian Belief, I examine the nature of epistemic warrant, that quantity enough of which distinguishes knowledge ... More


Proper Function

Michael C. Rea

in World Without Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199247608
eISBN:
9780191601804
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247609.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In an earlier chapter, the author argues that naturalists can justifiably accept realism about material objects only if the methods of science justify belief in intrinsic modal properties. One ... More


Moderate Epistemological Foundationalism

Randal Rauser

in Theology in Search of Foundations

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199214600
eISBN:
9780191706509
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214600.003.0010
Subject:
Religion, Theology

Alvin Plantinga's moderate foundationalism is rooted philosophically in Thomas Reid's common‐sense realism, while its theological background is found in the emphasis within Reformed theology upon ... More


Naturalism Versus Proper Function?

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant and Proper Function

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078640
eISBN:
9780199872213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078640.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The account of warrant I propose, utilizing the notion of proper function as it does, is an example of naturalistic epistemology: it invokes no kind of normativity not to be found in the natural ... More


Warrant: a First Approximation

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant and Proper Function

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078640
eISBN:
9780199872213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078640.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In Warrant: The Current Debate, I canvassed contemporary accounts of warrant (that quantity enough of which is what distinguishes knowledge from mere true belief), and found them inadequate. In this ... More


Moral Reality

Paul Bloomfield

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195137132
eISBN:
9780199833092
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195137132.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The book is a work in metaethics, constituting a defense of moral realism. The book begins with what I call a “modest transcendental argument” for the existence of the property of moral goodness ... More


Intelligent Design and Selective History: Two Sources of Purpose and Plan

Peter J. Graham

in Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 3

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199603213
eISBN:
9780191725388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603213.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In Warrant and Proper Function and in Knowledge of God, Alvin Plantinga provides an intelligent design argument for the existence of God. Plantina's key premise is that “naturalism” cannot account ... More


Rationality

Alvin Plantinga

in Warranted Christian Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195131932
eISBN:
9780199867486
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195131932.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion

Among objections to Christian belief, we can distinguish between de facto objections and de jure objections, i.e., between those that claim that Christian belief is false (de facto objections) and ... More


From Evolution to Emotionese

Jennifer Greenwood

in Becoming Human: "The Ontogenesis, Metaphysics, and Expression of Human Emotionality"

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262029780
eISBN:
9780262329828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029780.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter focuses on intentionality, specifically, on how mental states acquire their intentional contents (their ‘aboutness’). In previous chapters it was noted that the affect expressions and ... More


Knowledge

Richard Swinburne

in Epistemic Justification

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199243792
eISBN:
9780191598524
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199243794.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Knowledge is (strongly) warranted (strong) true belief. For the internalist, a belief being warranted is it being justified (in the sense of the belief being rendered inductively probable by other ... More


Prospect and Retrospect

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant: The Current Debate

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078626
eISBN:
9780199833559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078624.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, I take stock of the arguments and conclusions of the previous nine chapters, noting that the idea of proper function figures prominently in the difficulties from which the main ... More


Moral Metaphysics: Reality Unobserved

Paul Bloomfield

in Moral Reality

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195137132
eISBN:
9780199833092
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195137132.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The property of physical health is presented as a model for moral goodness, and a primer on being healthy follows. Healthiness is understood in terms of proper biological function. Conventionalism ... More


The Inherent Normativity of Functions in Biology and Technology

Maarten Franssen

in Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262113212
eISBN:
9780262255271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262113212.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter examines the role that is played in the debate on what is and what is not the adequate theory of function, by the claim that “function” is an inherently normative concept. It explores ... More


Reliabilism

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant: The Current Debate

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078626
eISBN:
9780199833559
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078624.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

As I use the term, externalism is the complement of internalism; the externalist denies that in order for one of my beliefs to have warrant for me, I must have some sort of special or privileged ... More


Coherence, Foundations, and Evidence

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant and Proper Function

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078640
eISBN:
9780199872213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078640.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

In this chapter, I (1) examine the contrast between foundationalism and coherentism, and (2) consider evidentialism, a special variety of foundationalism. After arguing that the central tenet of ... More


Induction

Alvin Plantinga

in Warrant and Proper Function

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195078640
eISBN:
9780199872213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195078640.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Broadly taken, the term “induction” denotes our whole nondeductive procedure of acquiring, maintaining, and discarding beliefs about what is so far unobserved or undetected or unknown. In this ... More


Augustinian Compatibilism

Jesse Couenhoven

in Stricken by Sin, Cured by Christ: Agency, Necessity, and Culpability in Augustinian Theology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199948697
eISBN:
9780199345977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199948697.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter seeks to clarify how we can be responsible for inherited sins or virtues. “Augustinian compatibilism” contends that we are responsible for our beliefs and loves, and (in)actions ... More


Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion Volume 3

Jonathan L. Kvanvig (ed.)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199603213
eISBN:
9780191725388
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199603213.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This is the third volume of the Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion series. As with the first two volumes, these essays follow the tradition of providing a non-sectarian and non-partisan ... More


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