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Operators

Gary E. Bowman

in Essential Quantum Mechanics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228928
eISBN:
9780191711206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228928.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter develops a basic working knowledge of operators — objects central to quantum mechanics. The fact that quantum operators are linear determines how they may be manipulated, so linearity ... More


Interpreting Probabilities in Quantum Field Theory and Quantum Statistical Mechanics

Laura Ruetsche and John Earman

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Philosophical accounts of quantum theory commonly suppose that the observables of a quantum system form a Type-I factor von Neumann algebra. Such algebras always have atoms, which are minimal ... More


Projection Operator Techniques

Heinz-Peter Breuer and Francesco Petruccione

in The Theory of Open Quantum Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199213900
eISBN:
9780191706349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213900.003.09
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter is devoted to the foundations and to the basic mathematical structure of the non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems. It gives a survey of the Nakajima–Zwanzig projection operator ... More


STATISTICAL MECHANICS

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter begins by reviewing the definitions and properties of N particle molecular distribution functions and the Liouville equation, which governs their evolution in time. Zwanzig projection ... More


STOCHASTIC EQUATIONS FROM A STATISTICAL MECHANICAL VIEWPOINT

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter begins with a heuristic derivation of the Langevin equation using the Mori projection operator as the main tool. The random force and the friction constant are identified. A similar ... More


Basic operations on propositions

Ivano Ciardelli, Jeroen Groenendijk, and Floris Roelofsen

in Inquisitive Semantics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198814788
eISBN:
9780191852473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814788.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

Chapter 3 considers what the basic operations are that can be performed on propositions in inquisitive semantics. In the classical setting, where propositions are simple sets of worlds, one can form ... More


Quantum Theory

Jochen Rau

in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics: An Introduction to Key Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199595068
eISBN:
9780191844300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595068.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

From the outset statistical mechanics will be framed in the language of quantum theory. The typical macroscopic system is composed of multiple constituents, and hence described in some many-particle ... More


What are Quantum Measurements?

Gershon Kurizki and Goren Gordon

in The Quantum Matrix: Henry Bar's Perilous Struggle for Quantum Coherence

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780198787464
eISBN:
9780191829512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198787464.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Chapter 4 introduces a great QM mystery: the notion of quantum measurements. Henry is in a superposition of versions localized in several places, but when Eve measures Henry’s position she (as a ... More


Quantum Measurement and Entanglement: Wave Function Collapse

Duncan G. Steel

in Introduction to Quantum Nanotechnology: A Problem Focused Approach

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
July 2021
ISBN:
9780192895073
eISBN:
9780191924149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780192895073.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The postulates presented at this point are generally agreed upon as being the primary set. But in the course of these postulates, there is no mention of the consequences of measurement. This chapter ... More


Introduction To Quantum Relaxation Processes

Abraham Nitzan

in Chemical Dynamics in Condensed Phases: Relaxation, Transfer and Reactions in Condensed Molecular Systems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198529798
eISBN:
9780191916649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198529798.003.0015
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

The first question to ask about the phenomenon of relaxation is why it occurs at all. Both the Newton and the Schrödinger equations are symmetrical under time reversal: The Newton equation, dx/dt = ... More


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