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Diagnosis and Treatment

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes how both humans and machines carry out the task of diagnosis, classically defined as the purposeful process of classifying cases. The chapter is organized into four sections: ... More


Linguistic Awareness in Multilinguals: English as a Third Language

Ulrike Jessner

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748619139
eISBN:
9780748671496
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748619139.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This book discusses cognitive and psycholinguistic aspects of third language acquisition and trilingualism, and explores the key role of linguistic awareness in multilingual proficiency and language ... More


Individual Communicative Benefits

Victor Ginsburgh and Shlomo Weber

in How Many Languages Do We Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136899
eISBN:
9781400838905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136899.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter begins with a discussion of the incentives to learn foreign languages, ranging from an expected increase in earnings, to the pleasure it can provide through immersion in a different ... More


Problems with the Comprehension of Miranda Rights Among Vulnerable Suspects

Lawrence S. Wrightsman and Mary L. Pitman

in The Miranda Ruling: Its Past, Present, and Future

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199730902
eISBN:
9780199776986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730902.003.005
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter reviews recent research on the comprehension of the Miranda rights by members of several vulnerable groups. For example, the warnings often exceed the reading level of the typical ... More


Leading the Lingua Franca Mandate

Tsedal Neeley

in The Language of Global Success: How a Common Tongue Transforms Multinational Organizations

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691196121
eISBN:
9781400888641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196121.003.0003
Subject:
Business and Management, International Business

This chapter follows Mikitani's thinking and leadership development with regard to the Englishnization mandate. Initially, Mikitani believed the English language mandate would succeed if employees ... More


Raising and organizing standing armies

Roger B. Manning

in An Apprenticeship in Arms: The Origins of the British Army 1585-1702

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199261499
eISBN:
9780191718625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261499.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

The first standing armies in the British Isles which contained experienced officers and could deploy sizeable field forces were the Scots Covenanting Army and the English New Model Army. The latter ... More


Ethnic Differences in Language Skills: How Individual and Family Characteristics Aid and Prohibit the Linguistic Integration of Children of Immigrants

Jörg Dollmann, Frida Rudolphi, and Meenakshi Parameshwaran

in Growing up in Diverse Societies: The Integration of the Children of Immigrants in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780197266373
eISBN:
9780191879562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197266373.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Proficiency in the language of a new country is perhaps the most important precondition for the successful integration of immigrants in various other integration aspects, like educational and ... More


The Grammars of Bilinguals in New York

Ricardo Otheguy and Ana Celia Zentella

in Spanish in New York: Language Contact, Dialectal Leveling, and Structural Continuity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199737406
eISBN:
9780199918621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737406.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

Pronoun rates are especially high among those born in New York, those who came as young children, and those who have lived in the city for a long time. Popular and scholarly assumptions regarding ... More


The Lingua Franca Mandate: “Englishnization”

Tsedal Neeley

in The Language of Global Success: How a Common Tongue Transforms Multinational Organizations

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691196121
eISBN:
9781400888641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196121.003.0002
Subject:
Business and Management, International Business

This chapter sets the stage with the dramatic announcement by Hiroshi Mikitani, CEO of Rakuten, informing his 10,000 employees, of which over 7,100 are Japanese nationals, that from that day forward ... More


Linguistic Expats and Bounded Fluency: “I am an expat in my own country”

Tsedal Neeley

in The Language of Global Success: How a Common Tongue Transforms Multinational Organizations

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780691196121
eISBN:
9781400888641
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691196121.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, International Business

This chapter focuses on the Japanese linguistic expats and their linguistic shock, which initially presents a barrier to learning a foreign language. It provides the results of the seemingly ... More


On the Explanatory Role of Correspondence Truth

Kitcher Philip

in Preludes to Pragmatism: Toward a Reconstruction of Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199899555
eISBN:
9780199980154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199899555.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter attempts to answer the urge to use quotation marks in writing about truth. Its central theme is the possibility of reducing the notion of truth to that of reference, conceiving of ... More


Solidarity Activism? Rethinking Citizenship Through Inaudibility

Reiko Shindo

in Belonging in Translation: Solidarity and Migrant Activism in Japan

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9781529201871
eISBN:
9781529201918
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781529201871.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter looks at the acts of citizenship in more detail, showing that not only the visible but also the audible presence of noncitizens is constitutive of struggles for citizenship. Attention to ... More


Culture in Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

Janet Zhiqun Xing

in Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622097629
eISBN:
9789882207479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622097629.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter aims to discuss the existing relationship between culture and language and the inseparable connectedness of culture and language. It ... More


Morphosyntax

Pingali Sailaja

in Indian English

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748625949
eISBN:
9780748671434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625949.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

A cline of proficiency is proposed in the chapter. It is argued that standard Indian English syntax is very close to native—British and American—varieties of English. It is demonstrated that ... More


Componential Approaches to the Study of Language Proficiency

Norbert Francis

in Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016391
eISBN:
9780262298384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter examines the relationship among the components of language ability in school: language proficiency relating to literacy learning and other language skills essential for academic ... More


Research on the Components of Bilingual Proficiency

Norbert Francis

in Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016391
eISBN:
9780262298384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter examines the idea that bilingual proficiency is internally diverse—that is, componential. It shows that the proposed modification to Cummins’s Common Underlying Proficiency Model needs ... More


Exploring linguistic awareness in third language use

Ulrike Jessner

in Linguistic Awareness in Multilinguals: English as a Third Language

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748619139
eISBN:
9780748671496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748619139.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This chapter provides evidence of linguistic awareness as an essential component of multilingual proficiency. It begins with a review of some international studies on the multilingual lexicon, which ... More


Crystallizing linguistic awareness in multilingual education

Ulrike Jessner

in Linguistic Awareness in Multilinguals: English as a Third Language

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748619139
eISBN:
9780748671496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748619139.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This chapter presents various applications of linguistic awareness research to multilingual education. It suggests that one of the main goals in future language teaching should be to foster ... More


Assessment and Grading

Robert DiYanni and Anton Borst

in The Craft of College Teaching: A Practical Guide

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780691183800
eISBN:
9780691202006
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691183800.003.0012
Subject:
Education, Higher and Further Education

This chapter considers assessment and grading. It argues that assessment is not grading, and grading is not assessment—though the two are often conflated and sometimes confused. Instead of seeing ... More


Music as an Emergent Exaptation

Ian Cross

in Music, Language, and Human Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199227341
eISBN:
9780191804274
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199227341.003.0010
Subject:
History, Ancient History / Archaeology

This chapter examines the role of music as an emergent exaptation of the later hominin lineage. It describes a model that provides a basis for considering music and language to be analogous systems ... More


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