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Diagnosis and Treatment

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes how both humans and machines carry out the task of diagnosis, classically defined as the purposeful process of classifying cases. The chapter is organized into four sections: ... More


Linguistic Awareness in Multilinguals: English as a Third Language

Ulrike Jessner

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748619139
eISBN:
9780748671496
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748619139.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This book discusses cognitive and psycholinguistic aspects of third language acquisition and trilingualism, and explores the key role of linguistic awareness in multilingual proficiency and language ... More


Individual Communicative Benefits

Victor Ginsburgh and Shlomo Weber

in How Many Languages Do We Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136899
eISBN:
9781400838905
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136899.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter begins with a discussion of the incentives to learn foreign languages, ranging from an expected increase in earnings, to the pleasure it can provide through immersion in a different ... More


Problems with the Comprehension of Miranda Rights Among Vulnerable Suspects

Lawrence S. Wrightsman and Mary L. Pitman

in The Miranda Ruling: Its Past, Present, and Future

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199730902
eISBN:
9780199776986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730902.003.005
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

This chapter reviews recent research on the comprehension of the Miranda rights by members of several vulnerable groups. For example, the warnings often exceed the reading level of the typical ... More


Ethnic Differences in Language Skills: How Individual and Family Characteristics Aid and Prohibit the Linguistic Integration of Children of Immigrants

Jörg Dollmann, Frida Rudolphi, and Meenakshi Parameshwaran

in Growing up in Diverse Societies: The Integration of the Children of Immigrants in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780197266373
eISBN:
9780191879562
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197266373.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Migration Studies (including Refugee Studies)

Proficiency in the language of a new country is perhaps the most important precondition for the successful integration of immigrants in various other integration aspects, like educational and ... More


The Grammars of Bilinguals in New York

Ricardo Otheguy and Ana Celia Zentella

in Spanish in New York: Language Contact, Dialectal Leveling, and Structural Continuity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199737406
eISBN:
9780199918621
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737406.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

Pronoun rates are especially high among those born in New York, those who came as young children, and those who have lived in the city for a long time. Popular and scholarly assumptions regarding ... More


Raising and organizing standing armies

Roger B. Manning

in An Apprenticeship in Arms: The Origins of the British Army 1585-1702

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199261499
eISBN:
9780191718625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261499.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

The first standing armies in the British Isles which contained experienced officers and could deploy sizeable field forces were the Scots Covenanting Army and the English New Model Army. The latter ... More


On the Explanatory Role of Correspondence Truth

Kitcher Philip

in Preludes to Pragmatism: Toward a Reconstruction of Philosophy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199899555
eISBN:
9780199980154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199899555.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter attempts to answer the urge to use quotation marks in writing about truth. Its central theme is the possibility of reducing the notion of truth to that of reference, conceiving of ... More


Culture in Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

Janet Zhiqun Xing

in Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9789622097629
eISBN:
9789882207479
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789622097629.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter aims to discuss the existing relationship between culture and language and the inseparable connectedness of culture and language. It ... More


Componential Approaches to the Study of Language Proficiency

Norbert Francis

in Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016391
eISBN:
9780262298384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter examines the relationship among the components of language ability in school: language proficiency relating to literacy learning and other language skills essential for academic ... More


Research on the Components of Bilingual Proficiency

Norbert Francis

in Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016391
eISBN:
9780262298384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter examines the idea that bilingual proficiency is internally diverse—that is, componential. It shows that the proposed modification to Cummins’s Common Underlying Proficiency Model needs ... More


Morphosyntax

Pingali Sailaja

in Indian English

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748625949
eISBN:
9780748671434
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748625949.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

A cline of proficiency is proposed in the chapter. It is argued that standard Indian English syntax is very close to native—British and American—varieties of English. It is demonstrated that ... More


Exploring linguistic awareness in third language use

Ulrike Jessner

in Linguistic Awareness in Multilinguals: English as a Third Language

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748619139
eISBN:
9780748671496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748619139.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This chapter provides evidence of linguistic awareness as an essential component of multilingual proficiency. It begins with a review of some international studies on the multilingual lexicon, which ... More


Crystallizing linguistic awareness in multilingual education

Ulrike Jessner

in Linguistic Awareness in Multilinguals: English as a Third Language

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780748619139
eISBN:
9780748671496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748619139.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Applied Linguistics and Pedagogy

This chapter presents various applications of linguistic awareness research to multilingual education. It suggests that one of the main goals in future language teaching should be to foster ... More


Improving Literacy in America: Guidelines from Research

Frederick J. Morrison, Heather Bachman, and Carol Connor

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300106459
eISBN:
9780300130256
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300106459.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Education

An alarmingly high number of American students continue to lack proficiency in reading, maths, and science. The various attempts to address this problem have all too often resulted in “silver bullet” ... More


Arabic Language Learning on US Campuses after 9/11: “Needs” and Challenges

Elizabeth Anderson Worden and Jeremy Browne

in Middle East Studies for the New Milleniu: Infrastructures of Knowledge

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9781479827787
eISBN:
9781479850662
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479827787.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Race and Ethnicity

This chapter explores trends in Arabic-language learning during years before and after 9/11 to shed light on the relationship between the federal government's pressing need for regional specialists ... More


Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Norbert Francis

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016391
eISBN:
9780262298384
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

When two or more languages are part of a child’s world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. This book examines the ... More


Politics of Gender and Shelter

in Sheltering Women: Negotiating Gender and Violence in Northern Italy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804753012
eISBN:
9780804767866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804753012.003.0004
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter discusses the ideologies on gender and family that enlightened daily practice within two organizations: Family Aid and Women United. It examines in closer detail the methods of these two ... More


Two Sides of Shame

in Sheltering Women: Negotiating Gender and Violence in Northern Italy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804753012
eISBN:
9780804767866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804753012.003.0005
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter takes a look at the life histories of two women (Luisa and Pia) that help show the range of gender proficiency in Parma. It addresses the difficulty associated with resisting certain ... More


Gender Proficiencies

in Sheltering Women: Negotiating Gender and Violence in Northern Italy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804753012
eISBN:
9780804767866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804753012.003.0006
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter considers a man's point of view with regard to women engaging in a new way of interpreting and imagining the world, thus sacrificing their relationships with men. It identifies the ... More


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