*Storrs McCall*

- Published in print:
- 1996
- Published Online:
- October 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780198236221
- eISBN:
- 9780191679209
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198236221.003.0005
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter is concerned with objective probability or objective chance. The entire branched model in fact can be regarded as embodying an inexhaustible variety of objective, de re probability ...
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This chapter is concerned with objective probability or objective chance. The entire branched model in fact can be regarded as embodying an inexhaustible variety of objective, de re probability values. This chapter explores the consequences of employing a branched definition of probability, and examines the similarities and differences between this approach and other theories of probability which philosophers have proposed and adopted. There are four main different conceptions of probability currently accepted by probability theorists: the logical, relative frequency, subjective, and propensity theories. This chapter surveys each of them briefly and then compares them with the branched interpretation.Less

This chapter is concerned with objective probability or objective chance. The entire branched model in fact can be regarded as embodying an inexhaustible variety of objective, *de re* probability values. This chapter explores the consequences of employing a branched definition of probability, and examines the similarities and differences between this approach and other theories of probability which philosophers have proposed and adopted. There are four main different conceptions of probability currently accepted by probability theorists: the logical, relative frequency, subjective, and propensity theories. This chapter surveys each of them briefly and then compares them with the branched interpretation.

*Storrs McCall*

- Published in print:
- 1996
- Published Online:
- October 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780198236221
- eISBN:
- 9780191679209
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198236221.003.0006
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that the branched model provides a clear and definite answer to the question of truth-conditions not only for counterfactuals, but also for all conditionals with contingent ...
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This chapter argues that the branched model provides a clear and definite answer to the question of truth-conditions not only for counterfactuals, but also for all conditionals with contingent antecedent and consequence. It illustrates that some conditionals have truth-values, some have only probability values, and some have both. In order to separate the two classes of conditional this chapter first attempts to establish a pre-theoretic line between them, based on considerations of grammar and linguistic usage. Subsequently it explains how this intuitive, everyday distinction may be grounded in theory.Less

This chapter argues that the branched model provides a clear and definite answer to the question of truth-conditions not only for counterfactuals, but also for all conditionals with contingent antecedent and consequence. It illustrates that some conditionals have truth-values, some have only probability values, and some have both. In order to separate the two classes of conditional this chapter first attempts to establish a pre-theoretic line between them, based on considerations of grammar and linguistic usage. Subsequently it explains how this intuitive, everyday distinction may be grounded in theory.

*Storrs McCall*

- Published in print:
- 1996
- Published Online:
- October 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780198236221
- eISBN:
- 9780191679209
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198236221.003.0004
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Science

While it is not easy in quantum mechanics to construct a picture in space and time, the branched model provides both a picture and an explanation of some of the features of quantum mechanics that ...
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While it is not easy in quantum mechanics to construct a picture in space and time, the branched model provides both a picture and an explanation of some of the features of quantum mechanics that have up to now resisted attempts to understand them. This chapter focuses on the interpretation of quantum mechanics through the branched model. The branched interpretation is an interpretation, not a new quantum theory, and does not replace the elegant theoretical apparatus of state vectors and operators in Hilbert space that are used to calculate and predict quantum probabilities. The interpretation is via the concept of probability, this concept having both a theoretical and an ontological aspect.Less

While it is not easy in quantum mechanics to construct a picture in space and time, the branched model provides both a picture and an explanation of some of the features of quantum mechanics that have up to now resisted attempts to understand them. This chapter focuses on the interpretation of quantum mechanics through the branched model. The branched interpretation is an interpretation, not a new quantum theory, and does not replace the elegant theoretical apparatus of state vectors and operators in Hilbert space that are used to calculate and predict quantum probabilities. The interpretation is via the concept of probability, this concept having both a theoretical and an ontological aspect.

*Andy Hector*

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- March 2015
- ISBN:
- 9780198729051
- eISBN:
- 9780191795855
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729051.001.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies, Ecology

Statistics is a fundamental component of the scientific toolbox, but learning the basics of this area of mathematics is one of the most challenging parts of a research training. This book gives an ...
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Statistics is a fundamental component of the scientific toolbox, but learning the basics of this area of mathematics is one of the most challenging parts of a research training. This book gives an up-to-date introduction to the classical techniques and modern extensions of linear model analysis—one of the most useful approaches in the analysis of scientific data in the life and environmental sciences. The book emphasizes an estimation-based approach that takes account of recent criticisms of over-use of probability values and introduces the alternative approach using information criteria. The book is based on the use of the open-source R programming language for statistics and graphics that is rapidly becoming the lingua franca in many areas of science. Statistics is introduced through worked analyses performed in R using interesting data sets from ecology, evolutionary biology, and environmental science. The data sets and R scripts are available as supporting material.Less

Statistics is a fundamental component of the scientific toolbox, but learning the basics of this area of mathematics is one of the most challenging parts of a research training. This book gives an up-to-date introduction to the classical techniques and modern extensions of linear model analysis—one of the most useful approaches in the analysis of scientific data in the life and environmental sciences. The book emphasizes an estimation-based approach that takes account of recent criticisms of over-use of probability values and introduces the alternative approach using information criteria. The book is based on the use of the open-source R programming language for statistics and graphics that is rapidly becoming the *lingua franca* in many areas of science. Statistics is introduced through worked analyses performed in R using interesting data sets from ecology, evolutionary biology, and environmental science. The data sets and R scripts are available as supporting material.