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Probabilistic Modeling in Physics

Claus Beisbart

in Probabilities in Physics

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199577439
eISBN:
9780191730603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577439.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Metaphysics/Epistemology

How can probabilistic models from physics represent a target, and how can one understand the probabilities that figure in such models? The aim of this chapter is to answer these questions by ... More


The Framework

Timothy J. O’Donnell and Noah D. Goodman

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter consists of four parts. The first section discusses the ideas behind the modeling framework adopted in the book---structured probabilistic generative models. The second section discusses ... More


Two Proposals for Causal Grammars

Thomas L. Griffiths and Joshua B. Tenenbaum

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

A causal theory can be thought of as a grammar that generates events, and that can be used to parse events to identify underlying causal structure. This chapter considers what the components of such ... More


A primer on probabilistic inference

Thomas L. Griffiths and Alan Yuille

in The Probabilistic Mind:: Prospects for Bayesian cognitive science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199216093
eISBN:
9780191695971
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216093.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides the technical introduction to Bayesian methods. Probabilistic models of cognition are often referred to as Bayesian models, reflecting the central role that Bayesian inference ... More


Introduction

Timothy J. O’Donnell

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter introduces the problem of productivity: How do language learners determine which potential generalizations can actually be used to create novel expressions in their language and which ... More


Epilogue

Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Epistemology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199269754
eISBN:
9780191601705
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269750.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Presents some general reflections on the role and the challenges of probabilistic modelling in philosophy.


Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Alison Gopnik and Laura Schulz (eds)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This book outlines the recent revolutionary work in cognitive science formulating a “probabilistic model” theory of learning and development. It provides an accessible and clear introduction to the ... More


Bayesian Epistemology

Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199269754
eISBN:
9780191601705
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269750.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Probabilistic models have much to offer to epistemology and philosophy of science. Arguably, the coherence theory of justification claims that the more coherent a set of propositions is, the more ... More


Probabilities, Odds, and Risks: Predispositions and Provocations as Causes

Peter V. Rabins

in The Why of Things: Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164726
eISBN:
9780231535458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164726.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter describes the probabilistic model, in which causes are conceptualized as events that affect the likelihood that another event will occur. In this model, causes act as influences, risk ... More


Probabilistic Mental Models

Gerd Gigerenzer

in Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195153729
eISBN:
9780199849222
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195153729.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The cognitive bias research claims that people are naturally prone to making mistakes in reasoning and memory, including the mistake of over-estimating their knowledge. This chapter proposes a new ... More


Intuitive Theories as Grammars for Causal Inference

Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Thomas L. Griffiths, and Sourabh Niyogi

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter presents a framework for understanding the structure, function, and acquisition of causal theories from a rational computational perspective. Using a “reverse engineering” approach, it ... More


Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Raphaël Mourad (ed.)

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709022
eISBN:
9780191779619
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

At the crossroads between statistics and machine learning, probabilistic graphical models provide a powerful formal framework to model complex data. Probabilistic graphical models are probabilistic ... More


Essentials to Understand Probabilistic Graphical Models: A Tutorial about Inference and Learning

Christine Sinoquet

in Probabilistic Graphical Models for Genetics, Genomics, and Postgenomics

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
December 2014
ISBN:
9780198709022
eISBN:
9780191779619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198709022.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Biostatistics

The aim of this chapter is to offer an advanced tutorial to scientists with no background or no deep background on probabilistic graphical models. To readers more familiar with these models, this ... More


Formalization of the Models and Inference

Timothy J. O’Donnell and Noah D. Goodman

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter the mathematical details of the models studied in this book. It also discusses the inference algorithms used for each of the models and various other issues of practical concern for the ... More


Conclusion

Timothy J. O’Donnell

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter provides a short overview of the entire book.


Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Timothy J. O'Donnell

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

Language allows us to express and comprehend an unbounded number of thoughts. This fundamental and much-celebrated property is made possible by a division of labor between a large inventory of stored ... More


Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference

Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir, and Alison Gopnik

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter starts from the premise that much of children's knowledge takes the form of abstract, coherent, causal claims that are learned from, and defeasible by, evidence. This view is consistent ... More


Introduction

Alison Gopni and Laura Schulz

in Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195176803
eISBN:
9780199958511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176803.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter provides a simple, clear, and (hopefully) amusing introduction to causal model and Bayes nets theories in computer science, the interventionist account of causation in philosophy, and ... More


Dynamics of Inductive Inference in a Unified Framework

Itzhak Gilboa, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler

in Analogies and Theories: Formal Models of Reasoning

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780198738022
eISBN:
9780191801419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738022.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter presents a formal model that captures both case‐based and rule‐based reasoning. The model is general enough to describe Bayesian reasoning, which may be viewed as an extreme example of ... More


Gaussian Processes and the Null-Category Noise Model

Lawrence Neil D. and Jordan Michael I.

in Semi-Supervised Learning

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0008
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter presents an augmentation of the standard probabilistic classification model which incorporates a null-category. Given a suitable probabilistic model for the model category, the chapter ... More


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