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CAUSALITY

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter provides an overview of the principal philosophical accounts of the nature of causality, including the mechanistic, probabilistic, counterfactual, and agency accounts.


Singular Causes First

Nancy Cartwright

in Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235071
eISBN:
9780191597169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235070.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

‘Singular Causes First’ rejects Hume's thesis that singular causal facts are reducible to generic ones, adopting a reverse position, taking singular causes as basic. Using idealized examples, ... More


Intuitions—Good and Not‐So‐Good

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Confronts conflicting intuitions about the character of probabilistic causality. These intuitions were exposed with the publication of the preceding essay, and the critics’ responses to it. Using ... More


Causality in Archaeological Explanation

Wesley C. Salmon

in Causality and Explanation

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195108644
eISBN:
9780199833627
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195108647.003.0023
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter extends the discussion of the preceding chapter, and emphasizes the causal dimensions of explanation in archaeology. The author considers the sorts of situations that archaeologists want ... More


Capacities

Nancy Cartwright

in Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235071
eISBN:
9780191597169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235070.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

In addition to the notion of causal law, the concept of capacity, modelled on Mill's notion of tendency, is required to make sense of standard methods in econometrics and standard accounts of ... More


What Econometrics Can Teach Quantum Physics: Causality and the Bell Inequality

Nancy Cartwright

in Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235071
eISBN:
9780191597169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235070.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter gives a concrete example of a question of current scientific interest where capacities matter: ‘Do the Bell inequalities describingEinstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) experiments show that ... More


Interventions, Causal Effects, and Causal Relevance

Daniel P. Steel

in Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195331448
eISBN:
9780199868063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331448.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter presents and explicates several concepts—namely, those listed in the chapter title—concerning causality and probability that play a fundamental role in the treatment of extrapolation in ... More


No Causes in, No Causes out

Nancy Cartwright

in Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198235071
eISBN:
9780191597169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198235070.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter argues that one cannot get knowledge of causes from equations and associations alone, using critical analyses of theoretical examples in physics and of attempts in the philosophy of ... More


Causal Laws and Effective Strategies

Nancy Cartwright

in How the Laws of Physics Lie

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198247043
eISBN:
9780191597152
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198247044.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Argues for the irreducibility of causal laws to laws of association, probabilistic or deterministic. Statistical or probabilistic analyses of causality, which typically require that the cause ... More


Causal completeness of probability theories — Results and open problems

Miklós Rédei and Balázs Gyenis

in Causality in the Sciences

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199574131
eISBN:
9780191728921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574131.003.0025
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

A classical (Kolmogorovian) probability measure space is defined to be causally closed with respect to a causal independence relation between pairs of random events if the probability space contains ... More


Aleatory Explanations

Paul Humphreys

in Philosophical Papers

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780199334872
eISBN:
9780190219710
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199334872.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The question of what role negatively relevant factors should play in explanations that refer to probabilistic causes is addressed. A distinction between contributing and counteracting causes is ... More


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