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Epistemology: New Essays

Quentin Smith (ed.)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199264933
eISBN:
9780191718472
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199264933.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book offers a view of the current state of play in epistemology in the form of twelve chapters by some of the philosophers who have most influenced the course of debates in recent years. Topics ... More


Analogy in Grammar: Form and Acquisition

James P. Blevins and Juliette Blevins (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547548
eISBN:
9780191720628
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547548.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics, Computational Linguistics

Analogy is a central component of language structure, language processing, and language change. This book addresses central questions about the form and acquisition of analogy in grammar. What ... More


Putting Logic in its Place: Formal Constraints on Rational Belief

David Christensen

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199263257
eISBN:
9780191602603
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263256.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Are rational beliefs constrained by formal logic? This book argues that if beliefs are seen in a binary way (either one believes a proposition or one doesn't), then the standard constraints of ... More


Bayesian Epistemology

Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199269754
eISBN:
9780191601705
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269750.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Probabilistic models have much to offer to epistemology and philosophy of science. Arguably, the coherence theory of justification claims that the more coherent a set of propositions is, the more ... More


 The Origins of Life and the Cosmos as Evolutionary Themes

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter demonstrates that the origin of the universe was probabilistic, not preordained, because Heisenberg's uncertainty principle would have been violated at the level of the Big Bang. The ... More


Epilogue

Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Epistemology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199269754
eISBN:
9780191601705
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199269750.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Presents some general reflections on the role and the challenges of probabilistic modelling in philosophy.


Dynamic Decision Theory and Probabilistic Information Processing

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews ideas and work done or in progress which seem to indicate where basic research on human decision processes is going. These ideas have two closely related foci: dynamic decision ... More


Multimodality Neuroimaging and Future Directions

Otto Muzik and Harry T. Chugani

in Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195342765
eISBN:
9780199863617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342765.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Advances in imaging technologies provide today an abundance of qualitatively diverse brain data sets with the purpose to guide the placement of subdural electrodes as a pre-requisite for epilepsy ... More


Inference Networks: Bayes and Wigmore

PHILIP DAWID, DAVID SCHUM, and AMANDA HEPLER

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

Methods for performing complex probabilistic reasoning tasks, often based on masses of different forms of evidence obtained from a variety of different sources, are being sought by, and developed ... More


Arguing about the Evidence: a Logical Approach

JOHN FOX

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

This chapter explores ways in which we can be equally rigorous about how to reason about and assess uncertain evidence, using a framework that allows for uncertainty but does not depend on being able ... More


BAYESIAN NETS

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0003
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter introduces Bayesian networks and probabilistic independence, and shows how Bayesian nets are used to represent probability functions. Inference in Bayesian nets is discussed and the ... More


CAUSALITY

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter provides an overview of the principal philosophical accounts of the nature of causality, including the mechanistic, probabilistic, counterfactual, and agency accounts.


Causality and Persons

John Levi Martin

in The Explanation of Social Action

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199773312
eISBN:
9780199897223
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199773312.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Theory

Chapter 2 examines the current favored “third person” explanation in the social sciences, namely causality. The socials sciences currently agree that causality is king, and that ... More


LOGIC

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

It is shown how the approach of this book can be extended to deal with probabilities over logical languages and cases in which an agent has logical background knowledge. Bayesian nets can be applied ... More


Probabilistic Logic

Jon Williamson

in In Defence of Objective Bayesianism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199228003
eISBN:
9780191711060
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228003.003.0007
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

In this chapter we see that objective Bayesianism can be applied as a semantics for probabilistic logic. §7.1 presents the rather general framework for probabilistic logic of (Haenni et al 2009). ... More


God and Other Spirits: Intimations of Transcendence in Christian Experience

Phillip Wiebe

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780195140125
eISBN:
9780199835492
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195140125.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This book advances three central propositions: (a) Claims about what is real, including a transcendent reality, if it exists, cannot be achieved by short, snappy proofs, but by the hard work of ... More


A Neural Implementation of Optimal Cue Integration

Wei Ji Ma, Jeff Beck, and Alexandre Pouget

in Sensory Cue Integration

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195387247
eISBN:
9780199918379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387247.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter lays out a theoretical framework for how optimal cue integration can be implemented by neural populations. The main significance of this framework does not merely lie in understanding ... More


Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thinking

Mike Oaksford and Nick Chater (eds)

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199233298
eISBN:
9780191696602
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233298.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The conditional, if…then, is probably the most important term in natural language and forms the core of systems of logic and mental representation. It occurs in all human languages and allows people ... More


Probabilistic methods for determining extinction chronologies

Ben Collen and Samuel T. Turvey

in Holocene Extinctions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199535095
eISBN:
9780191715754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535095.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Extinction events are rarely if ever witnessed, and therefore must be inferred. Predictions of extinction chronology have been elicited from a range of data, including sightings records, oral ... More


The Framework

Timothy J. O’Donnell and Noah D. Goodman

in Productivity and Reuse In Language: A Theory of Linguistic Computation and Storage

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262028844
eISBN:
9780262326803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028844.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

This chapter consists of four parts. The first section discusses the ideas behind the modeling framework adopted in the book---structured probabilistic generative models. The second section discusses ... More


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