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 Getting Locked In

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter uses the Prisoner's Dilemma as the linking idea in an overview of many of the topics covered later in the book. The basic ideas are that of a dominated strategy and a Pareto-efficient ... More


Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Robert V. Dodge

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

Thomas Schelling won the Nobel Prize “for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.” This came after he had taught a game theory and rational choice ... More


Equilibrium

Ken Binmore

in Natural Justice

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195178111
eISBN:
9780199783670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178111.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

After demolishing metaphysical notions of moral behavior, John Mackie's Inventing Right and Wrong argues that the way forward is through the study of anthropology and game theory. This chapter begins ... More


 Finitely Repeated Games

George J. Mailath and Larry Samuelson

in Repeated Games and Reputations: Long-Run Relationships

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195300796
eISBN:
9780199783700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300796.003.0017
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter presents examples of finitely repeated perfect-monitoring games of the type in which reputation arguments were first introduced, including the prisoners’ dilemma with a tit-for-tat ... More


 A General Theory of International Law

Andrew T Guzman

in How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195305562
eISBN:
9780199867004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305562.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter presents the basic theory of international law that is then used throughout the book. It explains how the forces of reputation, retaliation, and reciprocity (the Three Rs of Compliance) ... More


The Prisoner's Dilemma

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter focuses on the best-known game in game theory, the prisoner's dilemma. It begins with the development of the game at the RAND Corporation. Classical economics is based on the idea that ... More


Prisoners' Dilemma Is a Newcomb Problem

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume II

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195036466
eISBN:
9780199833399
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195036468.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This paper argues that, considered as puzzles about rationality, the Prisoners’ Dilemma and Newcomb's Problem are essentially one and the same problem.


A Contract on Future Generations?

Stephen M. Gardiner

in Intergenerational Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199282951
eISBN:
9780191712319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282951.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Contract theories — such as contractarianism and contractualism — seek to justify (and sometimes to explain) moral and political ideals and principles through the notion of ‘mutually agreeable ... More


Why Political Liberalism?: On John Rawls's Political Turn

Paul Weithman

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195393033
eISBN:
9780199894901
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393033.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This book offers a fresh, rigorous and compelling interpretation of John Rawls's reasons for taking his so-called “political turn”. The book takes Rawls at his word that justice as fairness was ... More


Cooperation

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter is about the prisoner's dilemma as a repeated encounter. The best strategy is defection, or non-cooperation, if a single encounter is anticipated. In the event of repeated, or iterated ... More


Bringing the State Back In

George Klosko

in Political Obligations

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199256204
eISBN:
9780191602351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256209.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

In arguing for the need for the state, this chapter establishes factual parameters within which discussions of political obligations should be conducted. Certain theorists argue that political ... More


How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory

Andrew Guzman

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195305562
eISBN:
9780199867004
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305562.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Applying rational-choice theory to international law and international relations, this book offers a comprehensive theory of the subject, how it operates, and why it works. Taking as a starting point ... More


Denial and Rejection

Graham Priest

in Doubt Truth to be a Liar

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199263288
eISBN:
9780191603631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199263280.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the connection between negation, denial, and untruth. There are close connections between these notions, but not the simplistic ones that are standardly supposed to obtain.


Measuring Social Norms and Preferences Using Experimental Games: A Guide for Social Scientist s

Colin F. Camerer and Ernst Fehr

in Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199262052
eISBN:
9780191601637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199262055.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The work of the cross‐cultural behavioural experiments project presented in this book is rooted in the logic of game theory and the practices of experimental economics, and this chapter provides an ... More


Transnational Cooperation Dilemmas

Scott Barrett

in Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199286096
eISBN:
9780191602832
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286094.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter develops a theoretical foundation for understanding international cooperation problems — why they arise, and why they are not easily addressed. Cooperation is cast as a game theoretic ... More


Cooperation

Raimo Tuomela

in The Philosophy of Sociality: The Shared Point of View

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195313390
eISBN:
9780199870929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313390.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter contains an extensive discussion of cooperation, including accounts of both I-mode and we-mode cooperation. I-mode cooperation concerns the participants relevantly “shifting” their ... More


Games, Conventions, and Public Goods

Ian Malcolm David Little

in Ethics, Economics, and Politics: Principles of Public Policy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
August 2004
ISBN:
9780199257041
eISBN:
9780191601293
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257043.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Game theory analyses the best behaviour of individuals when this depends on the reaction of others. The prisoners’ dilemma is the best‐known theorem, and has been thought to be an important reason ... More


Instrumental Rationality

Joseph Heath

in Following the Rules: Practical Reasoning and Deontic Constraint

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195370294
eISBN:
9780199871230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370294.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter examines how the consequentialism postulate, namely, the view that actions are valued only for the sake of their consequences, came to be enshrined in modern rational choice theory. It ... More


World in a Matrix

Paul Erickson, Judy L. Klein, Lorraine Daston, Paul Rebecca, Thomas Sturm, and Michael D. Gordin

in How Reason Almost Lost Its Mind: The Strange Career of Cold War Rationality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226046631
eISBN:
9780226046778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226046778.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During the postwar era, discussions of conflict and cooperation, altruism and self-interest, war and peace returned consistently to the mathematical idiom of game theory. The famed “prisoner's ... More


Theories That Are Directly Self‐Defeating

Derek Parfit

in Reasons and Persons

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249085
eISBN:
9780191598173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019824908X.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Examines whether it is an objection to S that, in some cases, S is directly collectively self‐defeating; some bad defences of S and M ‐ why it is an objection to M that this theory is directly ... More


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