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Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Robert V. Dodge

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

Thomas Schelling won the Nobel Prize “for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis.” This came after he had taught a game theory and rational choice ... More


The Prisoner's Dilemma

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter focuses on the best-known game in game theory, the prisoner's dilemma. It begins with the development of the game at the RAND Corporation. Classical economics is based on the idea that ... More


A Contract on Future Generations?

Stephen M. Gardiner

in Intergenerational Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199282951
eISBN:
9780191712319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282951.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Contract theories — such as contractarianism and contractualism — seek to justify (and sometimes to explain) moral and political ideals and principles through the notion of ‘mutually agreeable ... More


 A General Theory of International Law

Andrew T Guzman

in How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195305562
eISBN:
9780199867004
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305562.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter presents the basic theory of international law that is then used throughout the book. It explains how the forces of reputation, retaliation, and reciprocity (the Three Rs of Compliance) ... More


Why Political Liberalism?: On John Rawls's Political Turn

Paul Weithman

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195393033
eISBN:
9780199894901
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393033.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This book offers a fresh, rigorous and compelling interpretation of John Rawls's reasons for taking his so-called “political turn”. The book takes Rawls at his word that justice as fairness was ... More


Cooperation

ROBERT V. DODGE

in Schelling's Game Theory: How to Make Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199857203
eISBN:
9780199932597
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199857203.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This chapter is about the prisoner's dilemma as a repeated encounter. The best strategy is defection, or non-cooperation, if a single encounter is anticipated. In the event of repeated, or iterated ... More


Measuring Social Norms and Preferences Using Experimental Games: A Guide for Social Scientist s

Colin F. Camerer and Ernst Fehr

in Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199262052
eISBN:
9780191601637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199262055.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The work of the cross‐cultural behavioural experiments project presented in this book is rooted in the logic of game theory and the practices of experimental economics, and this chapter provides an ... More


Bringing the State Back In

George Klosko

in Political Obligations

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2005
ISBN:
9780199256204
eISBN:
9780191602351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256209.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

In arguing for the need for the state, this chapter establishes factual parameters within which discussions of political obligations should be conducted. Certain theorists argue that political ... More


How International Law Works: A Rational Choice Theory

Andrew Guzman

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195305562
eISBN:
9780199867004
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305562.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Applying rational-choice theory to international law and international relations, this book offers a comprehensive theory of the subject, how it operates, and why it works. Taking as a starting point ... More


Cooperation

Raimo Tuomela

in The Philosophy of Sociality: The Shared Point of View

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195313390
eISBN:
9780199870929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313390.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter contains an extensive discussion of cooperation, including accounts of both I-mode and we-mode cooperation. I-mode cooperation concerns the participants relevantly “shifting” their ... More


 Getting Locked In

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter uses the Prisoner's Dilemma as the linking idea in an overview of many of the topics covered later in the book. The basic ideas are that of a dominated strategy and a Pareto-efficient ... More


Instrumental Rationality

Joseph Heath

in Following the Rules: Practical Reasoning and Deontic Constraint

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195370294
eISBN:
9780199871230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370294.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter examines how the consequentialism postulate, namely, the view that actions are valued only for the sake of their consequences, came to be enshrined in modern rational choice theory. It ... More


Theories That Are Directly Self‐Defeating

Derek Parfit

in Reasons and Persons

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249085
eISBN:
9780191598173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019824908X.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Examines whether it is an objection to S that, in some cases, S is directly collectively self‐defeating; some bad defences of S and M ‐ why it is an objection to M that this theory is directly ... More


World in a Matrix

Paul Erickson, Judy L. Klein, Lorraine Daston, Paul Rebecca, Thomas Sturm, and Michael D. Gordin

in How Reason Almost Lost Its Mind: The Strange Career of Cold War Rationality

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780226046631
eISBN:
9780226046778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226046778.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

During the postwar era, discussions of conflict and cooperation, altruism and self-interest, war and peace returned consistently to the mathematical idiom of game theory. The famed “prisoner's ... More


The Political Economy of International Cooperation

Lisa L. Martin

in Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195130522
eISBN:
9780199867363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195130529.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Over the past 15 years, the field of international relations has produced a great deal of work on international cooperation and international institutions. This work has immediate relevance for ... More


Practical Dilemmas

Derek Parfit

in Reasons and Persons

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249085
eISBN:
9780191598173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019824908X.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Explains why C cannot be directly self‐defeating. Theories are agent‐relative if they give different agents different aims. Two such theories are S and Common Sense Morality, or M. It is often true ... More


A Shadowy and Evolving Tragedy

Stephen M. Gardiner

in A Perfect Moral Storm: The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195379440
eISBN:
9780199897100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379440.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter continues the investigation of the global storm. The chapter asks the question: if the optimistic analysis fails for climate change, what are the alternatives? The chapter especially ... More


Systemic Effects

Jeffrey Brand-Ballard

in Limits of Legality: The Ethics of Lawless Judging

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195342291
eISBN:
9780199867011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342291.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter introduces new arguments for the thesis that judges have all-things-considered reasons to obey nonpermissive rules. These arguments appeal to the systemic effects of deviating from the ... More


Prisoner’s dilemma: Game theory

Iwo Białynicki-Birula and Iwona Białynicka-Birula

in Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198531005
eISBN:
9780191713033
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198531005.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The question how to play to win in a simple game of chance has lead to the creation of an elaborate game theory with deadly serious applications to war strategies and equally serious applications to ... More


Groups

Paul Weirich

in Collective Rationality: Equilibrium in Cooperative Games

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195388381
eISBN:
9780199866700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388381.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Collective rationality is ordinary rationality extended to groups. Efficiency is a goal but not a requirement of collective rationality. In the Prisoner's Dilemma individual rationality does not ... More


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