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Analogy and Symmetry

Paul F. A. Bartha

in By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195325539
eISBN:
9780199776313
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195325539.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter has two purposes. First, it explores the connection between analogical reasoning and symmetry to provide a second justification for the argument form, independent of the one offered in ... More


 Keeping Up to Date

Ken Binmore

in Playing for Real: Game Theory

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195300574
eISBN:
9780199783748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter is about Bayesian decision theory. It explains why game theorists model players' beliefs using subjective probability distributions, and how these beliefs are updated using Bayes' rule ... More


Conservatism in a Simple Probability Inference Task

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents three experiments that explore several factors that affect conservatism. Experiment I examined the effects of prior probabilities, amount of data, and the diagnostic impact of ... More


Introduction*

Richard Swinburne

in Bayes's Theorem

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263419
eISBN:
9780191734175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263419.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter introduces Bayes' Theorem, which is primarily concerned with probability. It discusses some of the different kinds of probability, such as statistical probability, before moving on to a ... More


Characteristics of Auditory and Visual Scenes

Stephen Handel

in Perceptual Coherence: Hearing and seeing

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195169645
eISBN:
9780199786732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169645.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

If the goal of sensory systems is to maximize information transmission, there should be a match between the functioning of the sensory systems and the statistical properties of the objects in the ... More


Ultimate Explanation and Prior Probability

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Suppose for the sake of argument that theism is a meaningful and coherent theory with predictive power. Then we should wonder how probable it is that theism is true, given the total evidence for and ... More


The Logic of Scientific Discovery

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Applies the results of Ch. 7 to scientific methodology and shows that they give a logical interpretation of the subjective Bayesian theory of inductive inference. This theory is therefore no more ... More


Probabilism

Colin Howson

in Hume's Problem: Induction and the Justification of Belief

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198250371
eISBN:
9780191597749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250371.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Considers whether probability theory offers a way round Hume's argument, as has sometimes been contended. There are theorems of formal probability theory that appear to show that suitable evidence ... More


The Probability Connection

T. Grandy Walter

in Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents a brief introduction to probability as logic. The principle of maximum entropy is then developed as an algorithm of probability theory for the construction of prior ... More


A Negative Answer

Erik J. Olsson

in Against Coherence: Truth, Probability, and Justification

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199279999
eISBN:
9780191602665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199279993.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A sustained argument is given showing that more coherence does not imply a higher likelihood of truth even in fortunate circumstances (independence, individual credibility) and in a ceteris paribus ... More


Is God’s Existence Probable?

DAVID J. BARTHOLOMEW

in Uncertain Belief: Is it Rational to be a Christian?

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198270140
eISBN:
9780191683923
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198270140.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Theology, Philosophy of Religion

The chapter concentrates on whether the world owes its existence to a fundamental reality or not. Another aspect that needs to be studied is how people recognize God, God's purpose, and their part in ... More


Coherence, Truth, and Testimony

Erik J. Olsson

in Against Coherence: Truth, Probability, and Justification

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199279999
eISBN:
9780191602665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199279993.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The notion of a testimonial system is defined. It is argued that coherence pertains to testimonial systems. Various definitions of coherence in the literature are criticized for being either too ... More


Cosmological Arguments

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Inductive cosmological arguments are prima facie more promising for the natural theologian than deductive arguments, such as the Kalam cosmological argument, which is not sound. In the cosmological ... More


Religious Experience and the Burden of Proof

Herman Philipse

in God in the Age of Science?: A Critique of Religious Reason

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199697533
eISBN:
9780191738470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697533.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

An analysis of three problems for Richard Swinburne’s Bayesian cumulative case strategy in natural theology shows why he needs to shift the burden of proof to the unbeliever. Allegedly, this shift is ... More


Bayesian Basics and the Scientific Hypothesis

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter covers the basics of Bayesian statistics, emphasizing the conceptual framework for Bayes’ Theorem. It works through several iterations of the theorem to demonstrate how the same equation ... More


The Author Problem: Bayesian Inference with Two Hypotheses

Therese M. Donovan and Ruth M. Mickey

in Bayesian Statistics for Beginners: a step-by-step approach

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198841296
eISBN:
9780191876820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198841296.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

The “Author Problem” provides a concrete example of Bayesian inference. This chapter draws on work by Frederick Mosteller and David Wallace, who used Bayesian inference to assign authorship for ... More


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