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## Euclid's Elements 9. 14 and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

*C. M. Taisbak*

### in Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture

- Published in print:
- 2002
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198152484
- eISBN:
- 9780191710049
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198152484.003.0013
- Subject:
- Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

This chapter clarifies some unfamiliar concepts of Euclidean number theory and examines the bricks, constituents, and formative elements of numbers. It also considers three famous propositions from ... More

## Be contradictory, because of the infinitude of primes

*Susan D'Agostino*

### in How to Free Your Inner Mathematician: Notes on Mathematics and Life

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- April 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198843597
- eISBN:
- 9780191879388
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198843597.003.0029
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Educational Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

“Be contradictory, because of the infinitude of primes” offers encouragement and practice with the “proof-by-contradiction” method of mathematical proof. Any mathematician will tell you that the ... More

## Prime numbers: The DNA of mathematics

*Marcel Danesi*

### in Pythagoras' Legacy: Mathematics in Ten Great Ideas

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- January 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198852247
- eISBN:
- 9780191886959
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198852247.003.0002
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics, Educational Mathematics

The Pythagoreans developed many of the ideas related to numbers that have become so familiar to us, including even and odd numbers, square numbers, triangular numbers, and so on. They also discovered ... More

## The Hardest Problems in NP

*Lance Fortnow*

### in The Golden Ticket: P, NP, and the Search for the Impossible

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- May 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691175782
- eISBN:
- 9781400846610
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691175782.003.0004
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Programming Languages

This chapter looks at some of the hardest problems in NP. Most of the NP problems that people considered in the mid-1970s either turned out to be NP-complete or people found efficient algorithms ... More

## Mental Pictures

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0023
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter considers the mental pictures of thought and images in relation to algebraic symbols. According to Ludwig Wittgenstein, “We make to ourselves pictures of facts.” For Wittgenstein, the ... More

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