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Benthic primary production in polar lakes and rivers

Antonio Quesada, Eduardo Fernández-Valiente, Ian Hawes, and Clive Howard-Williams

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The benthic component of lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams is often rich in biodiversity as well as biomass. The main communities in the benthic habitat are microbial mats, aquatic mosses, and green ... More


Conclusions: An Ecosystem Perspective of Shallow Marine Reefs

Tim R. McClanahan and George M. Branch

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter summarizes what the authors consider to be the key and general organizing principles of kelp forests and coral reefs along gradients of oceanography, latitude, and effects of fishing and ... More


Influences on Ecosystem Function III: Bioenergetics

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Five of six studies of annual, net above-ground production (ANPP) in ungrazed herbaceous vegetation in or near the northern range have produced values from 52.8-110.6 g/m2. One extensive study of ... More


The physical limnology of high-latitude lakes

Warwick F. Vincent, Sally MacIntyre, Robert H. Spigel, and Isabelle Laurion

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The physical environment of high latitude lakes exerts a wide-ranging influence on their aquatic ecology. Certain features of Arctic and Antarctic lakes — such as prolonged ice cover and ... More


The savannah community and its conservation

Bryan Shorrocks

in The Biology of African Savannahs

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570660
eISBN:
9780191717680
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570660.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter looks at energy flow through the community (primary and secondary production) and food web dynamics. It includes a brief examination of the diversity-stability idea. A detailed flow ... More


Temperature Paces Life

Toby Tyrrell

in On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691121581
eISBN:
9781400847914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691121581.003.0004
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter addresses the question of optimal temperatures by looking at the evidence from physiological and ecological studies—evidence from studying living organisms. It summarizes what is known ... More


Analysis of size and complexity of randomly constructed food webs by information theoretic metrics

James T. Morris, Robert R. Christian, and Robert E. Ulanowicz

in Aquatic Food Webs: An ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198564836
eISBN:
9780191713828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198564836.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter studies random, steady state food webs of varying size and complexity (up to 2,000 species and 1.3 million connections) which were generated with and without ecologically realistic ... More


Wetland Functions

Arnold G. van der Valk

in The Biology of Freshwater Wetlands

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199608942
eISBN:
9780191774805
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199608942.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Wetlands play important functions in ecosystems, mainly through the capture and transfer of energy involving plants, animals, and microorganisms. Wetland functions range from primary production to ... More


Production at the Ecosystem Level

Michael J. Fogarty and Jeremy S. Collie

in Fishery Ecosystem Dynamics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9780198768937
eISBN:
9780191822209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198768937.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

The development of ecosystem models can be size-based, species-based, or trophocentric. In all cases, equilibrium mass-balance descriptions of ecosystems can be translated to dynamic models. Linear ... More


The Carbon Cycle

Han Dolman

in Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198779308
eISBN:
9780191824388
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779308.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

The chapter first shows carbon dioxide variability over long geological timescales. The current stocks and fluxes of carbon are then given, for the whole planet and for the atmosphere, ocean and land ... More


The Size- and Trait-Based Approach

Ken H. Andersen

in Fish Ecology, Evolution, and Exploitation: A New Theoretical Synthesis

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780691192956
eISBN:
9780691189260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691192956.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter outlines four future research questions where the size- and trait-based theory can be applied: stochasticity, behavioral ecology, coupling to primary production, and thermal ecology and ... More


Measuring and Modelling

Peter J. Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses, Third Edition

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716549
eISBN:
9780191802676
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716549.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

To understand an ecosystem fully, it is necessary to quantify flows of energy and matter. This requires measurement of standing crop biomass and growth of mangrove trees, primary production, and the ... More


Biogeochemical Processes on the Amazon Shelf: Changes in Dissolved and Particulate Fluxes During River/Ocean Mixing

David J. DeMaster and Robert C. Aller

in The Biogeochemistry of the Amazon Basin

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195114317
eISBN:
9780197561140
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195114317.003.0020
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

The immense discharge of the Amazon River causes river/ocean mixing to take place out on the continental shelf instead of within a drowned river valley, as in many smaller dispersal systems ... More


The Savannah Community and Its Conservation

Bryan Shorrocks and William (Bill) Bates

in The Biology of African Savannahs, 2nd Edn

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780198702702
eISBN:
9780191794131
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702702.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter looks at energy flow through the community (primary and secondary production) and food web dynamics. The latter includes a brief examination of the diversity–stability idea. A detailed ... More


Patterns of Manufacturing Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Colonization to the Present

Gareth Austin, Ewout Frankema, and Morten Jerven

in The Spread of Modern Industry to the Periphery since 1871

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
March 2017
ISBN:
9780198753643
eISBN:
9780191815232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198753643.003.0014
Subject:
History, Economic History, World Modern History

This chapter reviews the ‘long twentieth-century’ development of ‘modern’ manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africa from colonization to the present. It argues that classifying Africa generically as a ... More


The Role of Fine Roots in the Functioning of Alaskan Boreal Forests

Roger W. Ruess and Ronald L. Hendrick

in Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154313
eISBN:
9780197561928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154313.003.0018
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

The patterns of production described in Chapter 11 tell only half of the story about boreal forest production because a large proportion of the carbon (C) acquired by plants is allocated ... More


Vegetation indices

Nathalie Pettorelli

in The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199693160
eISBN:
9780191810145
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199693160.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter discusses the concept of vegetation indices and their role in ecological research and conservation. It reviews previous published indices, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation ... More


Floristic Diversity and Vegetation Distribution in the Alaskan Boreal Forest

Leslie A. Viereck and Marilyn D. Walker

in Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154313
eISBN:
9780197561928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154313.003.0011
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

Although modern forests have occupied interior Alaska for only 13,000 years, their floristic composition and patterns of distribution have remained relatively stable for the past 5,000 years ... More


Climate and Permafrost Dynamics of the Alaskan Boreal Forest

Larry D. Hinzman and Leslie A. Viereck

in Alaska's Changing Boreal Forest

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195154313
eISBN:
9780197561928
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195154313.003.0008
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Environmental Geography

There are large climatic differences among the boreal regions of the world. The extreme continental climates of central Siberia, with a mean annual temperature of –11°C or colder and precipitation ... More


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