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Passivity Experience in Schizophrenia

Philip Gerrans

in Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029346
eISBN:
9780262330213
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029346.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Philip Gerrans first explains the “predictive coding conception of cognition” which treats the mind as a hierarchy of cognitive systems devoted to the cancellation of error signals. Although the deep ... More


Predictive Coding and Difference-Based Coding

Georg Northoff

in Unlocking the Brain: Volume 1: Coding

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199826988
eISBN:
9780199399024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826988.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Taking different examples as starting points, the chapter aims to show that predictive coding and thus the prediction errors are possible only on the basis of encoding neural activity in terms of ... More


The Fly Lamina: An Efficient Interface for High-Speed Vision

Peter Sterling

in Principles of Neural Design

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262028707
eISBN:
9780262327312
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028707.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

A fly gathers information for high-speed vision with fast, accurate photoreceptors. Information encoded at high rates is costly and must be preserved during transmission to interneurons by synaptic ... More


The Role of Language in the Construction of Emotion and Memory: A Predictive Coding View

Ajay B. Satpute, Erik C. Nook, and Melis E. Cakar

in Neuroscience of Enduring Change

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190881511
eISBN:
9780190881528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881511.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Language is known to play an important role in communicating our thoughts, memories, and emotions. This chapter proposes that the role of language extends much more deeply to further shape and ... More


Perceiving as Predicting

Andy Clark

in Perception and Its Modalities

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9780199832798
eISBN:
9780199381609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199832798.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, General

According to an emerging vision in computational cognitive neuroscience, perception (rich, full-blooded, world-presenting perception of the kind we enjoy) depends heavily on prediction. To visually ... More


Predictive Coding and Social and Vegetative Statistics

Georg Northoff

in Unlocking the Brain: Volume 1: Coding

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199826988
eISBN:
9780199399024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826988.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The chapter proposes that the three different statistics, social, vegetative, and natural, are matched and compared with each other; this results in what the theory of predictive coding describes as ... More


Predictive Coding and the Brain’s Neuronal Statistics

Georg Northoff

in Unlocking the Brain: Volume 1: Coding

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199826988
eISBN:
9780199399024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826988.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The behavioral distinction between “seeking” and “wanting” suggests a corresponding underlying neuronal distinction during the generation of the predicted input. The chapter suggests that ... More


The Mindful Filter: Free Energy and Action

Karl J. Friston

in The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034326
eISBN:
9780262333290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034326.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter frames key questions about embodied cognition and action in terms of active inference; namely, the premise that the brain is trying to infer the causes of its sensory input—and samples ... More


Is Our Brain an Open or Closed System? Prediction Model of Brain and World–Brain Relation

Georg Northoff

in The Spontaneous Brain: From the Mind-Body to the World-Brain Problem

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780262038072
eISBN:
9780262346962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262038072.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Some recent philosophical discussions consider whether the brain is best understood as an open or closed system. This issue has major epistemic consequences akin to the scepticism engendered by the ... More


The Embedded View

Nico Orlandi

in The Innocent Eye: Why Vision Is Not a Cognitive Process

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199375035
eISBN:
9780199375059
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199375035.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The aim of this chapter is to present the view that the book defends (the Embedded View) and to discuss it in relation to models of vision in perceptual psychology. The embedded view emerges from ... More


Depletion and deprivation

Uffe Schjødt and Jeppe Sinding Jensen

in Metacognitive Diversity: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198789710
eISBN:
9780191841675
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789710.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

Religious beliefs represent striking examples of culturally transmitted ideas that guide individual metacognition. This chapter examines how religious practices facilitate the adoption of such ... More


A Computational Neuroscience Perspective on the Change Process in Psychotherapy

Ryan Smith, Richard D. Lane, Lynn Nadel, and Michael Moutoussis

in Neuroscience of Enduring Change

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190881511
eISBN:
9780190881528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881511.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

The application of computational neuroscience models to mental disorders has given rise to the emerging field of computational psychiatry. To date, however, there has been limited application of this ... More


CBT for Anxiety Disorders: Memory Reconsolidation Theory and Its Relationship to Cognitive, Emotional Processing, and Inhibitory Models

Jonathan D. Huppert, Isaac Fradkin, and Shawn P. Cahill

in Neuroscience of Enduring Change

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190881511
eISBN:
9780190881528
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881511.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Although exposure is considered one of the most effective treatments for the anxiety disorders, theories underlying the efficacy of the treatments vary. This chapter examines various forms of ... More


Visual Phenomenology

Michael Madary

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035453
eISBN:
9780262341783
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035453.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The main argument of the book is as follows: (1) The descriptive premise: The phenomenology of vision is best described as an ongoing process of anticipation and fulfillment. (2) The empirical ... More


The Active Brain

Michael Madary

in Visual Phenomenology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035453
eISBN:
9780262341783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035453.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

The sixth chapter defends the empirical premise of the main argument from a neuroscientific perspective. It begins with a discussion of the ongoing intrinsic activity of the brain. The chapter also ... More


Do We (or Our Brains) Actively Represent or Enactively Engage with the World?

Shaun Gallagher

in The Pragmatic Turn: Toward Action-Oriented Views in Cognitive Science

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780262034326
eISBN:
9780262333290
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034326.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter reviews scientific discussions of several problems (free will, social cognition, perception) that reflect a representational approach to cognitive science, and contrasts them with ... More


The Major Options

Dale Purves

in Brains as Engines of Association: An Operating Principle for Nervous Systems

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
March 2020
ISBN:
9780190880163
eISBN:
9780190054991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190880163.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Given the argument and evidence that the operating principle of nervous systems is to generate neural associations on a wholly empirical basis, it makes sense to compare this framework with other ... More


Body and Qualia

Georg Northoff

in Unlocking the Brain: Volume 2: Consciousness

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199826995
eISBN:
9780199979776
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199826995.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

How are the resting state activity’s prephenomenal structures transformed into a full-blown phenomenal state during stimulus-induced activity? The central stimuli input are interoceptive stimuli from ... More


Intentionality and Interpersonal Experience

Matthew Ratcliffe

in Real Hallucinations: Psychiatric Illness, Intentionality, and the Interpersonal World

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036719
eISBN:
9780262342155
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036719.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter addresses several interrelated ways in which other people are implicated in the development, sustenance, and disruption of the modal structure of intentionality. It first considers some ... More


Association and cognitive processing

Hans-Jörg Schmid

in The Dynamics of the Linguistic System: Usage, Conventionalization, and Entrenchment

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
February 2020
ISBN:
9780198814771
eISBN:
9780191852466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814771.003.0004
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

The chapter discusses the cognitive activities which are performed in usage events and entrenched, if repeated. The key cognitive activity is association in the associative network, with four types ... More


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