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The Development of Scientific Language

Adrienne Lehrer

in Wine and Conversation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195307931
eISBN:
9780199867493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307931.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

The treatment of language by philosophers has been biased toward scientific language, requiring precision in reference, denotation, and truth conditions. Scientific language, however, is special, and ... More


From History to Theory

Kerwin LeeKlein

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520268814
eISBN:
9780520948297
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520268814.001.0001
Subject:
History, Historiography

This book describes major changes in the conceptual language of the humanities, particularly in the discourse of history. The chapters trace the development of academic vocabularies through the ... More


Dynamics of Motor Cortical Networks: The Complementarity of Spike Synchrony and Firing Rate

Alexa Riehle, Sébastien Roux, Bjørg Elisabeth Kilavik, and Sonja Grün

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The temporal coding hypothesis suggests that not only changes in firing rate but also precise spike timing, especially synchrony, constitute an important part of the representational substrate for ... More


Intergovernmental Institutions and the Nature of Intergovernmental Agreements

Nicole Bolleyer

in Intergovernmental Cooperation: Rational Choices in Federal Systems and Beyond

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199570607
eISBN:
9780191721953
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570607.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, European Union

This chapter argues that the interplay of institutionalization and integration of intergovernmental arrangements affects the precision, the substantial depth and function of informal ... More


A Framework for the Design of Plant Diversity Studies

Thomas J. Stohlgren

in Measuring Plant Diversity: Lessons from the Field

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172331
eISBN:
9780199790395
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172331.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter suggests an experimental approach to vegetation sampling in general, and to plant diversity sampling in particular. It is assumed that most available sampling techniques are like ... More


Matching just-noticeable differences

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Different stimulus continua have different Weber fractions. If Weber's Law holds, matching jnds across continua generates a power law relation. If numbers be regarded as an artificial continuum, ... More


Worldly Vagueness and Semantic Indeterminacy

Nicholas J. J. Smith

in Vagueness and Degrees of Truth

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199233007
eISBN:
9780191716430
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233007.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter continues the examination begun in the previous chapter of objections to the fuzzy view of vagueness in particular, and to degree theoretic treatments of vagueness in general. It covers ... More


Unification and the Moon‐Test: Critical Assessment

William L. Harper

in Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data into Evidence about Gravity and Cosmology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199570409
eISBN:
9780191728679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570409.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Part I argues that the precision of Newton’s moon-test calculation goes beyond what modern least squares assessment can support from his cited data and that his data afford no support for his ... More


Additional Considerations, Recommendations, and Conclusions

Patrick Dattalo

in Determining Sample Size: Balancing Power, Precision, and Practicality

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195315493
eISBN:
9780199865475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315493.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter is organized into two sections. First, additional considerations that can affect sample size are discussed, including ethical concerns, costs, and synthesis of power and precision. ... More


The Resurgence of Route 128: The Triumph of Open Systems

Michael H. Best

in The New Competitive Advantage: The Renewal of American Industry

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297451
eISBN:
9780191595967
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198297459.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

Boston's Route 128 illustrates the concepts of regional technology capability, technology genealogy, and technology roadmap. Precision machining and complex product systems are regional technological ... More


The Seven Properties of Good Models

XAVIER GABAIX and DAVID LAIBSON

in The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics: A Hand Book

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195328318
eISBN:
9780199851768
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328318.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Models are significant as they are used to provide a supposedly reliable description or representation of the world. Most of the models that scientists attempt to generate and analyze are based on ... More


Introduction: The Measured Heart

Paul Glennie and Nigel Thrift

in Shaping the Day: A History of Timekeeping in England and Wales 1300-1800

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199278206
eISBN:
9780191699979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278206.003.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History, Social History

As told by Vicenzio Viviani — Galileo Galilei's first biographer and former student — Galileo took an interest in the movement of pendulums some time before 1600 because of the swinging of the oil ... More


Clock Times in Everyday Lives

Paul Glennie and Nigel Thrift

in Shaping the Day: A History of Timekeeping in England and Wales 1300-1800

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199278206
eISBN:
9780191699979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278206.003.0006
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History, Social History

‘Everyday life’ and ‘ordinary people’ refer to a broad collection of non-elite people, actions, and places that involve large amounts of temporal specialization in conducting activities out of ... More


Precision in Everyday Lives

Paul Glennie and Nigel Thrift

in Shaping the Day: A History of Timekeeping in England and Wales 1300-1800

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199278206
eISBN:
9780191699979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278206.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History, Social History

Similar to that attributed to clock time, the same problem is experienced by precision, but on a lesser degree since the precise uses of clock times are likely to be more explicit. Superior precision ... More


The Pursuit of Precision

Paul Glennie and Nigel Thrift

in Shaping the Day: A History of Timekeeping in England and Wales 1300-1800

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199278206
eISBN:
9780191699979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278206.003.0009
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History, Social History

As seen in the attempts of early societies to keep track of and exact correspondence between their calendar year and their celestial year, issues regarding precise time-measurement already existed ... More


The Future of Prospective Medicine Under the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007

Barbara J. Evans

in FDA in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenges of Regulating Drugs and New Technologies

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231171182
eISBN:
9780231540070
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171182.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Medical Law

This chapter explores special challenges FDA will face when assessing the safety and effectiveness of 21st-century preventive medical products that aim to avert future disease (as opposed to treating ... More


Advances in the Casimir Effect

Michael Bordag, Galina Leonidovna Klimchitskaya, Umar Mohideen, and Vladimir Mikhaylovich Mostepanenko

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199238743
eISBN:
9780191716461
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238743.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The subject of this book is the Casimir effect, i.e., a manifestation of zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum in the form of forces acting between closely spaced bodies. It is a purely ... More


Techniques to Develop Secure Memorization

Stewart Gordon

in Mastering the Art of Performance: A Primer for Musicians

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195177435
eISBN:
9780199864690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177435.003.07
Subject:
Music, Performing Practice/Studies

Although we memorize constantly in daily living, four characteristics attend memorization in performance that may not ordinarily be present: complexity of material, level of precision, time pressure, ... More


. Obliteration Bombing, Civilian Casualties, and the Laws of War

George Anastaplo

in Reflections on Life, Death, and the Constitution

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813125336
eISBN:
9780813135243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813125336.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter deals with the steady pounding that the by-then virtually undefended German cities were being subjected to by the American and British air forces. It notes that the civilian casualties ... More


American Democracy: The Shape of Democracy Itself

Cheryl B. Welch

in De Tocqueville

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198781318
eISBN:
9780191695414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198781318.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines the contributions to social and political analysis of Tocqueville's major published texts: Democracy in America I, and Democracy in America II. In the first text, he argues that ... More


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