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The Measurement of Sensation

Donald Laming

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

‘Sensation’ is the subjective experience of a physical stimulus. This book traces the sources of two ideas how to measure sensation — Fechner's Law and Stevens' Power Law — and examines the evidence ... More


Matching just-noticeable differences

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Different stimulus continua have different Weber fractions. If Weber's Law holds, matching jnds across continua generates a power law relation. If numbers be regarded as an artificial continuum, ... More


Why Stevens' Law is a power law

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter explains why Stevens' Power Law is a power law, rather than some other kind of relation. If the stimulus values are chosen in a geometric series and participants are induced to judge ... More


Scaling sensation

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

If magnitude estimates are definitive measures of sensation, then the same power law should apply not only to the estimation of individual sensations, but to sums and differences as well. The ... More


The origins of a controversy

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Since 1957, there has been a vigorous controversy about how to measure sensation — not the physical stimulus, but how that stimulus ‘feels’, subjectively, to the individual. The controversy has been ... More


Skill acquisition: History, questions, and theories

Craig P. Speelman and Kim Kirsner

in Beyond the Learning Curve: The construction of mind

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570417
eISBN:
9780191708657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570417.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter presents the history of research into skill acquisition, and reviews the key questions and theories that have framed this research. Issues include the existence of plateaus in learning ... More


The physiological basis of sensation

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter examines the hypothesis that the power law transform is realized in elementary neural function. It begins by examining studies that have looked for power law relationships between ... More


Characteristics of Auditory and Visual Scenes

Stephen Handel

in Perceptual Coherence: Hearing and seeing

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195169645
eISBN:
9780199786732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169645.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

If the goal of sensory systems is to maximize information transmission, there should be a match between the functioning of the sensory systems and the statistical properties of the objects in the ... More


Asymptotic Relaxation Laws

Wolfgang Götze

in Complex Dynamics of Glass-Forming Liquids: A Mode-Coupling Theory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199235346
eISBN:
9780191715600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235346.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In order to identify the essential items of the mode-coupling-theory scenarios, this chapter describes asymptotic expansions of the correlation functions for small frequencies and small separations ... More


The learning curve

Anat Ninio

in Language and the Learning Curve: A new theory of syntactic development

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199299829
eISBN:
9780191584985
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299829.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Models and Architectures

This chapter presents arguments in favour of considering syntactic development as a kind of cognitive skill learning, with transfer, generalization, and other practice effects demonstrating the ... More


Models of network formation: A discussion of models of the formation of networks, particularly models of networks that grow by addition of vertices, such as the World Wide Web or citation networks

M. E. J. Newman

in Networks: An Introduction

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199206650
eISBN:
9780191594175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206650.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Generative network models model the mechanisms by which networks are created. The idea behind models such as these is to explore hypothesized generative mechanisms to see what structures they ... More


The large-scale structure of networks: A discussion of some of the recurring patterns and structures revealed when we apply the concepts developed in previous chapters to the study of real-world networks

M. E. J. Newman

in Networks: An Introduction

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199206650
eISBN:
9780191594175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206650.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The previous chapters looked at different types of natural and man-made networks and techniques for determining their structure, the mathematics used to represent networks formally, and the measures ... More


Multiscale Nature Inspired Chemical Engineering

Marc-Olivier Coppens

in Multiscale Methods: Bridging the Scales in Science and Engineering

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199233854
eISBN:
9780191715532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233854.003.0016
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

Symmetry is key in solving many scientific and engineering problems. Drawing on examples from chemical engineering, this chapter illustrates how recognizing fractal scaling and other invariant ... More


Cooperation Emergent

Lee Cronk and Beth L. Leech

in Meeting at Grand Central: Understanding the Social and Evolutionary Roots of Cooperation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154954
eISBN:
9781400845484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154954.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter explores the concept of emergence in relation to cooperation, and more specifically how social interactions can lead to the spontaneous emergence of norms, conventions, and other social ... More


Structure Defines Function

Buzsáki György

in Rhythms of the Brain

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195301069
eISBN:
9780199863716
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301069.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic, Techniques

The neocortex is built from five principal-cell types and numerous classes of interneurons. Early formulation of cortical structure emphasized the modularity of the neocortex. Its robust local ... More


The Dynamics of Web Traffic

Bruce Rogers

in The Internet Trap

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691159263
eISBN:
9780691184074
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159263.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

This chapter aims to build better models of web traffic. It shows how web traffic is roughly power law distributed, in which a highly concentrated “head” of the Web is coupled with a long, diffuse ... More


Glassy Dynamics of Liquids–Facets of the Phenomenon

Wolfgang Götze

in Complex Dynamics of Glass-Forming Liquids: A Mode-Coupling Theory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199235346
eISBN:
9780191715600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235346.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents an elementary discussion of some glassy-dynamics features, which are exhibited by experimental data and by molecular-dynamics-simulation results. The outstanding property of ... More


How Estimation Can Benefit From an Imbalanced World

Ralph Hertwig, Ulrich Hoffrage, and Rüdiger Sparr

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0116
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter analyzes how valuable the assumption of systematic environment imbalance is for performing rough-and-ready intuitive estimates, which people regularly do when inferring the quantitative ... More


The stimulus range

Donald Laming

in The Measurement of Sensation

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198523420
eISBN:
9780191712425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523420.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Exponents estimated for different stimulus continua are approximately inversely related to the log stimulus range; but that ceases to be true when comparisons are made between different ranges on the ... More


The New Paradigm: Powerlaw Economics

Mia de Kuijper

in Profit Power Economics: A New Competitive Strategy for Creating Sustainable Wealth

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195171631
eISBN:
9780199871353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171631.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

In Chapter 5 the new economic paradigm for the 21st century—a paradigm that is consistent with the emergence of perfect information—is introduced. This chapter demonstrates that due to the second ... More


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