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The large-scale structure of networks: A discussion of some of the recurring patterns and structures revealed when we apply the concepts developed in previous chapters to the study of real-world networks

M. E. J. Newman

in Networks: An Introduction

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199206650
eISBN:
9780191594175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199206650.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The previous chapters looked at different types of natural and man-made networks and techniques for determining their structure, the mathematics used to represent networks formally, and the measures ... More


Austria

Wolfgang C. Müller

in Semi-Presidentialism in Europe

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198293866
eISBN:
9780191599156
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198293860.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the constitutional reform of 1929, Austria comes under the rubric of semi‐presidentialism as defined in this volume: alongside the chancellor (prime minister), who is fully responsible to ... More


The Distribution of Power

André Béteille

in Caste, Class and Power: Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780198077435
eISBN:
9780199081080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198077435.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Social Stratification, Inequality, and Mobility

This chapter describes how political power is distributed in Sripuram. It focuses on its relation to social stratification. Their relations to group structures such as panchayats, parties, and local ... More


Political Jurisprudence

Martin Shapiro

in On Law, Politics, and Judicialization

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256488
eISBN:
9780191600234
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256489.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This paper was originally published in the Kentucky Law Journal in 1964, and it is the first of two that elaborate a relatively general approach to judicial politics, which emphasizes the underlying ... More


: Pressure Groups and Parties: A ‘Haze of Common Knowledge’ or the Empirical Advance of the Discipline?

Jeremy Richardson

in The British Study of Politics in the Twentieth Century

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262948
eISBN:
9780191734762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262948.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

The central paradox in reviewing the contribution of British political scientists to the understanding of these intermediary institutions is that both the number of scholars and the output have been ... More


POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION KINETICS

Takashi Fujimoto

in Plasma Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530282
eISBN:
9780191713149
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530282.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

The rate equation which governs the population of discrete levels leads to the collisional-radiative model, in which the population is expressed as the sum of the ionizing plasma component and the ... More


Conclusion: The United States in International Society

Ian Clark

in Hegemony in International Society

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199556267
eISBN:
9780191725609
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556267.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

This chapter argues that we need to go beyond the post-Cold War debate about US primacy. The more relevant immediate issue for international order is the potential of any US hegemony. The conclusion ... More


Power Laws and Long Tails

David P. Feldman

in Chaos and Fractals: An Elementary Introduction

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199566433
eISBN:
9780191774966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566433.003.0021
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter examines distributions known as power laws, which are fractal because they are scale-free. It first considers normal or Gaussian distributions to provide a useful contrast to power-law ... More


Solving the Tower of Hanoi with Random Moves

Max A. Alekseyev and Toby Berger

in The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects: Research in Recreational Math

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164038
eISBN:
9781400881338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164038.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter studies solutions of the Tower of Hanoi puzzle and some of its variants with random moves, where each move is chosen uniformly from the set of the valid moves in the current state. The ... More


The Political Economy of Industrial Policy in Asia and Latin America

Mushtaq H. Khan and Stephanie Blankenburg

in Industrial Policy and Development: The Political Economy of Capabilities Accumulation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199235261
eISBN:
9780191715617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235261.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter discusses the viability and effectiveness of industrial policies for catching up in relation to state-led management of rents throughout the process of social transformation. A crucial ... More


Alternative Typologies of Social Orders and Political Settlements

William D. Ferguson

in The Political Economy of Collective Action, Inequality, and Development

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
September 2020
ISBN:
9781503604612
eISBN:
9781503611979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9781503604612.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter summarizes several approaches to categorizing social orders and political settlements on the basis of elemental political and institutional characteristics. A political settlement is a ... More


Structures of Justification

Jürgen Neyer

in The Justification of Europe: A Political Theory of Supranational Integration

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199641246
eISBN:
9780191745591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199641246.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, European Union, Political Theory

Chapter Seven of the book reconstructs the legal and political practices of the European Union in the terms of the right to justification. The EU is reconceptualized as a transnational discourse ... More


The Problem of Order

G. John Ikenberry

in After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars, New Edition

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780691169217
eISBN:
9781400880843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691169217.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This introductory chapter provides an overview of how states build international order. The great moments of international order building have tended to come after major wars, as winning states have ... More


The geometry of fracture networks

Pierre M. Adler, Jean-François Thovert, and Valeri V. Mourzenko

in Fractured Porous Media

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199666515
eISBN:
9780191748639
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666515.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter deals with the geometry of random networks. The fractures are generally considered as plane objects such as polygons. The most important question relative to these networks is whether ... More


Theory and hypotheses

Adrienne Héritier, Catherine Moury, Carina Bischoff, and Carl-Fredrik Bergström

in Changing Rules of Delegation: A Contest for Power in Comitology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199653621
eISBN:
9780191751349
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653621.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

In the theoretical chapter, different from the principal-agent literature which focuses on why principals delegate and how they seek to control the agent, this book analyzes delegation from the angle ... More


Changing Rules of Delegation: A Contest for Power in Comitology

Adrienne Héritier, Catherine Moury, Carina S. Bischoff, and Carl Fredrik Bergström

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199653621
eISBN:
9780191751349
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653621.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

With each legislative issue, legislators have to decide whether to delegate decision-making to the executive and/or to expert bodies in order to flesh out the details of this legislation, or, ... More


Continuous-time random walks

J. Klafter and I.M. Sokolov

in First Steps in Random Walks: From Tools to Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199234868
eISBN:
9780191775024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234868.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Up to now the book has considered the displacement and the return properties of a walker as functions of the number of steps. In physics and chemistry we however are mostly interested in the behavior ... More


What Feminist Jurisprudence Means to Me

Andrea Dworkin

in Directions in Sexual Harassment Law

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300098006
eISBN:
9780300135305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300098006.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Employment Law

This chapter focuses on feminist jurisprudence and the two things one should expect from it. The first is that the law has to recognize real injuries to real women, concrete ways in which women are ... More


The committee system

Ross M. English

in The United States Congress

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
July 2012
ISBN:
9780719063084
eISBN:
9781781700228
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Manchester University Press
DOI:
10.7228/manchester/9780719063084.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter discusses the role and the power of the committee system, and examines the structure of the committee, where it lists the five types of committees in Congress. One of these is the ... More


Counter-Institutionalization in the Global Governance System

Michael Zürn

in A Theory of Global Governance: Authority, Legitimacy, and Contestation

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198819974
eISBN:
9780191860133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198819974.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

States increasingly contest international institutions by “counter-institutionalization.” This comes in two forms. Counter-Institutionalization by Incumbent States (CMALL 4) means regime shifting and ... More


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