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Formal Semantics

Wayne A. Davis

in Nondescriptive Meaning and Reference: An Ideational Semantics

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199261659
eISBN:
9780191603099
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199261652.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter shows that the treatment of names as having nondescriptive, indefinable senses does not preclude a powerful formal semantics; that the referential properties of names can be treated ... More


Modal Logic from Kant to Possible Worlds Semantics

Tapio Korte, Ari Maunu, and Tuomo Aho

in The Development of Modern Logic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195137316
eISBN:
9780199867912
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195137316.003.0035
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter begins with a discussion of Kant's theory of judgment-forms. It argues that it is not true in Kant's logic that assertoric or apodeictic judgments imply problematic ones, in the manner ... More


Meaning, Modality, and Possible Worlds Semantics

Scott Soames

in Philosophy of Language

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691138664
eISBN:
9781400833931
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691138664.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter begins with a discussion of Kripke-style possible worlds semantics. It considers one of the most important applications of possible worlds semantics, the account of counterfactual ... More


Molinist Conditionals

Edwin Mares and Ken Perszyk

in Molinism: The Contemporary Debate

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199590629
eISBN:
9780191731280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590629.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter distinguishes semantic and metaphysical problems facing Molinism. In the past thirty years, there has been a fair amount of uncertainty and confusion in the literature over the ... More


Counterfactuals and Comparative Possibility

David Lewis

in Philosophical Papers Volume II

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195036466
eISBN:
9780199833399
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195036468.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Proposes an analysis of counterfactual conditionals in terms of possible‐world semantics. Various issues arising from the proposed analysis are then discussed, including possible equivalent ... More


Semantics for Logical Necessity

Nino B. Cocchiarella and Max A. Freund

in Modal Logic: An Introduction to its Syntax and Semantics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195366587
eISBN:
9780199851898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366587.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter initially describes possible-worlds semantics, which was first introduced by Rudolf Carnap in 1946 in terms of his state-description semantics, for sentential modal logic. Carnap was not ... More


Objectivity, Ontology

Robert Kraut

in Artworld Metaphysics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199228126
eISBN:
9780191711053
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228126.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

The ontology of art can be thought of in either of two ways: as providing an explanation of artworld institutional practices, or as providing a codified representation of the norms underlying such ... More


The Constructibility Quantifiers

Charles S. Chihara

in Constructibility and Mathematical Existence

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198239758
eISBN:
9780191597190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198239750.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Sketches the basic idea for the approach taken. A mathematical system is to be developed in which the existential theorems of traditional mathematics are to be replaced by constructibility theorems: ... More


Necessity

Colin McGinn

in Logical Properties: Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199241811
eISBN:
9780191598029
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199241813.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

The view that modal expressions can be successfully paraphrased by means of quantification over possible worlds is rejected on the grounds that such translations are either circular or inadequate. It ... More


Could There Be Unicorns ?

Michael Dummett

in The Seas of Language

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198236214
eISBN:
9780191597350
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198236212.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

Kripke argued that there might not have been unicorns: since unicorns are fictional species, they are necessarily fictional. There are three arguments aimed at showing the fictionality of unicorns, ... More


A Possible Worlds Semantics for ‘Ought’

Matthew Chrisman

in The Meaning of 'Ought': Beyond Descriptivism and Expressivism in Metaethics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780199363001
eISBN:
9780199363025
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199363001.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter explores the dominant semantics for modal expressions in formal semantics, including Kratzer’s developments for context-sensitive natural language semantics. It explains how an account ... More


 Possible Worlds Model Theory

Timothy Williamson

in Modal Logic as Metaphysics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199552078
eISBN:
9780191752506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552078.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

Kripke transformed both the model theory of modal logic and the understanding of metaphysical modality. In particular, he analysed the model-theoretic conditions for the Barcan formula and its ... More


Quantification and Ontology

Ruth Barcan Marcus

in Modalities: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195096576
eISBN:
9780199833412
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195096576.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

Interpretations of standard first‐order logic fail as vehicles for paraphrase of important segments of discourse involving tenses, modalities, and the like. This paper considers substitutional ... More


The intensionalization of extensions

Pieter A. M. Seuren

in From Whorf to Montague: Explorations in the Theory of Language

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199682195
eISBN:
9780191764929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682195.003.0010
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This chapter argues for replacing possible world semantics (PWS) with an ecologically motivated alternative. Besides failing to account for intensionality phenomena or scope differences, PWS is a ... More


Why Nozick is a Sceptic

Anthony Brueckner

in Essays on Skepticism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199585861
eISBN:
9780191595332
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585861.003.0026
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter contains the first discussion of Nozick on scepticism in the vast literature that followed the publication of Philosophical Explanations. It is argued that certain sceptical problems ... More


In Defence of Convention T

Donald Davidson

in Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246298
eISBN:
9780191715181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246297.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

As in Essay 4, Davidson rehearses the demands for an acceptable theory of meaning, and stresses the demand that the stock of concepts used by metalanguage in which the truth theory is stated extends ... More


From Possible to Impossible Worlds

Francesco Berto and Mark Jago

in Impossible Worlds

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
August 2019
ISBN:
9780198812791
eISBN:
9780191850585
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198812791.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Possible worlds are ways things might have been. They find applications in analysing possibility and necessity; propositions; knowledge and belief; information; and indicative and counterfactual ... More


What does language have to do with logic and mathematics?

Pieter A. M. Seuren

in From Whorf to Montague: Explorations in the Theory of Language

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199682195
eISBN:
9780191764929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682195.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

In current theoretical linguistics, there is no attention to the logical aspects in language, partly because modern logic is not geared to language and partly because of a recent trend to banish ... More


From Whorf to Montague: Explorations in the Theory of Language

Pieter A. M. Seuren

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199682195
eISBN:
9780191764929
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199682195.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics

This book offers a critical view of a gamut of approaches to natural language, ranging from Whorfianism, via Relativism, both widespread in anthropological linguistics, to logic-based Possible World ... More


Sense and Understanding

José Luis Bermúdez

in Understanding I: Language and Thought

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2017
ISBN:
9780198796213
eISBN:
9780191837319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796213.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

How should we explicate what it is to understand the first person pronoun? 2 outlines a broadly Fregean approach. One of the questions Frege used sense to tackle was the problem of explaining ... More


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