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Poor Relief, Charity, and Self-Help in Crisis Times, 1834–69

George R. Boyer

in The Winding Road to the Welfare State

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691178738
eISBN:
9780691183992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691178738.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter traces the roles played by the Poor Law, charity, and self-help from 1834 to 1870. Workers responded to the reduced availability of outdoor relief after 1834 by increasing their saving ... More


Social Welfare Policy, Living Standards, and Self-Help, 1861–1908

George R. Boyer

in The Winding Road to the Welfare State

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691178738
eISBN:
9780691183992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691178738.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter discusses the Crusade Against Outrelief and its effects on working-class behavior. The increased use of the workhouse caused a sharp decline in the share of the population receiving poor ... More


Old Age Poverty and Pauperism

George R. Boyer

in The Winding Road to the Welfare State

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691178738
eISBN:
9780691183992
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691178738.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter demonstrates how the aged coped economically and the extent of their reliance on the Poor Law from the 1860s to 1908. The share of working-class persons 65 and older receiving poor ... More


“Living Ghosts” during the Nanjing Decade

Janet Y. Chen

in Guilty of Indigence: The Urban Poor in China, 1900-1953

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691152103
eISBN:
9781400839988
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691152103.003.0004
Subject:
History, Asian History

This chapter underscores how Nationalist (GMD) assumptions about poor relief drew on the intellectual discourses that had developed in the previous decades. It begins with an overview of the ... More


On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England c.1550-1750

Steve Hindle

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199271320
eISBN:
9780191709548
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271320.001.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This book is a study of the negotiations which took place over the allocation of poor relief in the rural communities of 16th-, 17th-, and early 18th-century England. It analyses the relationships ... More


Establishing and Registering Identity in the Dutch Republic1

Henk Looijesteijn and Marco H. D. Van Leeuwen

in Registration and Recognition: Documenting the Person in World History

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265314
eISBN:
9780191760402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265314.003.0009
Subject:
History, World Modern History

The Dutch Republic had a broad range of means to establish an individual's identity, and a rudimentary ‘system’ of identity registration, essentially established at the local levels of town and ... More


A Life of Expedients the Old Poor Law at Work

David Eastwood

in Governing Rural England: Tradition and Transformation in Local Government 1780-1840

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204817
eISBN:
9780191676406
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204817.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter examines the old poor law and the expedients, which became cornerstones of a more humane, but vastly more expensive system. This chapter also discusses the published statistics, of ... More


Coercion and Consensus: The Poor Law and Philanthropy

Richard H. Trainor

in Black Country Élites: The Exercise of Authority in an Industrialized Area, 1830-1900

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198203551
eISBN:
9780191675850
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203551.003.0007
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This chapter examines poor relief, philanthropy and the Poor Law, the two important areas of social leadership of the local government of the Black Country in England during the period from 1830 to ... More


Introduction: Poverty Beyond Public Policy

Steve Hindle

in On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England c.1550-1750

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199271320
eISBN:
9780191709548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271320.003.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of Paul Slack's Poverty and Policy in Tudor and Stuart England. The account of poverty in this book is then compared to Slack's contribution. An ... More


“A Blessing upon Our Labors”: Women's Benevolent Societies and Poor Relief

Elizabeth Hayes Turner

in Women, Culture, and Community: Religion and Reform in Galveston, 1880–1920

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195086881
eISBN:
9780199854578
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195086881.003.0005
Subject:
History, Cultural History

This chapter discusses the women who joined benevolent societies and how they acted and moved among the suffering and the destitute. The women never lost their patronizing air, nor did they openly ... More


The City

Owen Chadwick

in The Early Reformation on the Continent

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198269021
eISBN:
9780191600470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198269021.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Church History

The link between towns and the coming of the Reformation, while discernible everywhere, is most evident in the free cities of Germany and Switzerland. Every city had its own characteristics, and ... More


“Ruin Poor Families”

Honor Sachs

in Home Rule: Households, Manhood, and National Expansion on the Eighteenth-Century Kentucky Frontier

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780300154139
eISBN:
9780300216530
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300154139.003.0004
Subject:
History, American History: early to 18th Century

This chapter examines the experience of poverty in Kentucky, paying particular attention to the impact of financial hardship on poor women and orphans. After the end of the American Revolution in ... More


Central Government ‘Interference’: Changing Conceptions, Practices, and Concerns, c. 1700–1850’

JOANNA INNES

in Civil Society in British History: Ideas, Identities, Institutions

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199260201
eISBN:
9780191717352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199260201.003.0003
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Economic History

This chapter has two main parts. The first offers a broad sketch of changes in the way that government was constructed and operated, and in the problems it was seen to pose, between the late 17th and ... More


Redefining Social Interest: The Eighteenth-Century Foundling Crisis

Matthew Gerber

in Bastards: Politics, Family, and Law in Early Modern France

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199755370
eISBN:
9780199932603
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199755370.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History, Family History

Even as French jurists increasingly grounded the exclusion of extramarital offspring from the family on social interest rather than supposed personal defect, the definition of social interest was ... More


Conversion at Kilmany

Stewart J. Brown

in Thomas Chalmers and the Godly Commonwealth in Scotland

Published in print:
1983
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780192131140
eISBN:
9780191670039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192131140.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity, Church History

The Church of Scotland was organized on the presbyterian model, with ecclesiastical law defined and enforced by a hierarchy of Church courts. Two clerical factions developed. Each party represented a ... More


Marital Status as a Category of Difference: Singlewomen and Widows

Amy M. Froide

in Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199270606
eISBN:
9780191710216
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199270606.003.0002
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

This chapter examines how marital status differentiated the lives of women in early modern England. It posits a clear distinction between the experiences of ever-married women (e.g., wives and ... More


Providing for the Destitute

Karen J. Cullen

in Famine in Scotland - the 'Ill Years' of the 1690s

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748638871
eISBN:
9780748653508
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748638871.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Scottish Studies

The greatest impact of the famine must have been upon the poorer sections of society. This chapter focuses on the extent and increase of poverty and the nature, enforcement and success of the poor ... More


The Winding Road to the Welfare State

George R. Boyer

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2019
ISBN:
9780691178738
eISBN:
9780691183992
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691178738.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

How did Britain transform itself from a nation of workhouses to one that became a model for the modern welfare state? This book investigates the evolution of living standards and welfare policies in ... More


The Creation of a Protestant Community: Nîmes, 1530–1547

Allan A. Tulchin

in That Men Would Praise the Lord: The Reformation in Nimes, 1530-1570

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199736522
eISBN:
9780199866229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199736522.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter discusses the spread of humanism in Nîmes, and then the early spread of Calvinism, particularly Calvin’s Eucharistic theology. It concludes that the professors in Nîmes’s newly ... More


Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramifications

John McManners

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198270034
eISBN:
9780191600685
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198270038.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Church History

This study of the Catholic Church and religious life in eighteenth‐century France seeks to ‘recapture the atmosphere of the times, and to appreciate the beliefs, aspirations, hopes, and fears of four ... More


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