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Institutional Immobilism, Ideological Ferment, and Reluctant Socio-Economic Modernization

Jack Hayward

in Fragmented France: Two Centuries of Disputed Identity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199216314
eISBN:
9780191712265
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216314.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, European Union

The slow motion retreat from peasant and artisan ruralism underpinned an institutional immobilism mastered by a new professional political class of meritocratic barristers and businessmen. ... More


Professional Politicians: Towards a Comparative Perspective

Jens Borchert

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

If we are to compare professional politicians in different political systems, we need a conceptual tool that enables us to study functionally equivalent structures and patterns of behaviour in vastly ... More


Italy: The Homeland of the Political Class

Ettore Recchi and Luca Verzichelli

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the early post-war years, parties have been central to Italy's political system and have regulated the recruitment patterns and socialization of members of the large political class, which was ... More


Portugal: The Patrimonial Heritage and the Emergence of a Democratic Political Class

José M. Borchert

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0017
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

After thirty years of Portuguese democracy, a democratic political class is still emerging but has already become quite stable and cohesive over time. The chapter brings to the fore the difficulties ... More


Great Britain: From the Prevalence of the Amateur to the Dominance of the Professional Politician

Uwe Jun

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter shows the professionalization of the political class in Great Britain, a country that until the early 1970s was dominated by the amateur politician. Both major parties in Britain, the ... More


Finland: From Political Amateurs to Political Class

Ilkka Ruostetsaari

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In historical perspective, the history of Finland's political class is one of gradual growth. Parliamentary salaries and public party financing were established before 1967, thus laying the ... More


Israel: Community, State, and Market in the Shaping of the Political Class

Uri Ram

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The Israeli political system was erected by movement-like political parties, which have been closely meshed with the state administration, the army, and the public sector. This process has created ... More


United States: A Political Class of Entrepreneurs

Jens Borchert and Gary Copeland

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

American politicians have about the greatest choice in terms of the electoral offices they want to pursue. However, only a minority of these numerous offices is professionalized. Moreover, while ... More


The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Jens Borchert and Jürgen Zeiss (eds)

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Professional politicians have increasingly come under public attack in most democratic countries, yet they have received surprisingly little systematic attention in political science. This is the ... More


Switzerland: The Militia Myth and Incomplete Professionalization

Reto Wiesli

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0020
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Four features are highly valued in Switzerland's political system and political culture: the militia principle, direct democracy, federalism, and consociationalism. These factors also have a strong ... More


Australia: Party Politicians as a Political Class

Ian Mcallister

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The hallmark of the Australian political system is strong party control. The consequences of party control and party discipline for the recruitment, composition, organization, and outlook of ... More


Canada: Political Careers between Executive Hopes and Constituency Work

David C. Docherty

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Members of the Canadian Parliament today are well-paid political professionals. Still, the most attractive goal of a national political career in Canada is a seat at the cabinet table, because only ... More


Germany: From “Guilds of Notables” to Political Class

Jens Borchert and Lutz Zeiss

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The professionalization of politics in Germany was hindered by the explicit rejection of legislative salaries in the German constitution until 1906. Thus, it was the Social Democratic Party and ... More


New Zealand: Parliamentary Careers and Electoral Reform

Elizabeth McLeay

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0015
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

At the end of the nineteenth century, New Zealand's MPs began to see their mandate as an occupation and therefore granted themselves full salaries. Yet, staffing remained poor until the 1970s, when ... More


France: Enduring Notables, Weak Parties, and Powerful Technocrats

Marcus Kreuzer and Ina Stephan

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

French politicians became skilled political entrepreneurs much earlier than their European counterparts, but their professionalization was shaped by the fact that it took place within a centralized ... More


An Exemplary Case: Chile

Laurence Whitehead

in Democratization: Theory and Experience

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199253289
eISBN:
9780191600326
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199253285.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Provides a case study of the democratization of Chile viewed as an exemplary case, i.e. one that is not only of importance in itself, but is also instructional for comparativists with no special ... More


Spain: A Textbook Case of Partitocracy

Peter Matuschek

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0018
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Following its late democratization, Spain immediately experienced a development towards political professionalism, a process in which the political parties have been decisive as they soon succeeded ... More


Sweden: Between Participation Ideal and Professionalism

Magnus Hagevi

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0019
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The participation ideal has affected Swedish politics in many ways and at first seems to contradict the notion of a professional political class. Yet, this has never been true for the national level ... More


Japan: Political Careers between Bureaucracy and Hereditary Constituencies

Claudia Derichs and Harold R. Kerbo

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter provides an overview of the historical development of politics as a profession from the time of Japan's opening to the West until today. It looks at the polity dimension of Japanese ... More


Denmark: Professionalism in an Egalitarian Political Culture

Torben K. Jensen

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Denmark's egalitarian political culture stresses the values of participation, equality, and a strong civil society – traits that may be detrimental to the development of a class of professional ... More


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