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The Senior Civil Service in Belgium

Marleen Brans and Annie Hondeghem

in Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States: A Comparative Analysis of Top Officials

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294467
eISBN:
9780191600067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294468.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The Belgian senior civil service is in transition, with external pressures clearly pushing the government firmly towards a reform agenda and improving public confidence in the administrative system, ... More


Party Patronage in Hungary: Capturing the State

Jan-Hinrik Meyer-Sahling and Krisztina Jager

in Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199599370
eISBN:
9780191741517
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199599370.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter examines party patronage in Hungary. It argues that party patronage reaches into all areas of the public sector. Political appointments are relatively more important for the ministerial ... More


Party Patronage in Iceland: Rewards and Control Appointments

Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

in Party Patronage and Party Government in European Democracies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199599370
eISBN:
9780191741517
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199599370.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter applies two theories of patronage to Iceland. According to rewards theory, patronage is used by party leaders to reward supporters in a clientelist network of exchange. Control theory, on ... More


Institutions for and Against Friendship

P.E. Digeser

in Friendship Reconsidered: What It Means and How It Matters to Politics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780231174343
eISBN:
9780231542111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231174343.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Establishes that political and legal institutions can encourage and discourage friendship in various ways. Although the law can and should be friendlier to friendship, it will be an imperfect ... More


Grievances against the Morsi Government

Kira D. Jumet

in Contesting the Repressive State: Why Ordinary Egyptians Protested During the Arab Spring

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780190688455
eISBN:
9780190688493
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190688455.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization, Political Economy

This chapter outlines the individual grievances arising from political, economic, social, and religious conditions under the government of Mohamed Morsi that became the foundations of opposition to ... More


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