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The State Law Standard

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Nearly all police agencies and the vast majority of officers derive their authority from state law, making state law a relevant and important standard to consider in the evaluation of police uses of ... More


The Community Expectations Standard

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The use of force by police, when perceived negatively by community members, can undermine public trust over time, even serving as a flashpoint that ignites long-simmering hostility. The acute and ... More


The Constitutional Law Standard

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Police officers, like all government officials, are subject to the limitations imposed by the Constitution of the United States. The Supreme Court has ruled that police uses of force are subject to ... More


The Administrative Standard

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The vast majority of the 18,000 police agencies in the United States have policies, procedures, and training that govern officers’ uses of force. While there are notable consistencies and broad, ... More


Tactical Considerations1

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Officers do not use force in a vacuum. It has long been recognized that a use of force is not the result of a single decision, but rather of “a contingent sequence of decisions and resulting ... More


Force Options: Tools, Techniques, and Weaponry

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Properly evaluating a use of force requires a working knowledge of the various force options. This chapter identifies two particularly relevant characteristics of any given option: how it works and ... More


Conclusion

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Once the analytical frameworks that can be used to evaluate police uses of force are firmly understood, it is appropriate to question the propriety of those frameworks as they currently exist. In ... More


Introduction

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

in Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The use of force is inherent in and inseparable from modern policing, but police violence has proven to be a challenging and divisive social issue. Officers could not fulfil their public duties ... More


Evaluating Police Uses of Force

Seth W. Stoughton, Jeffrey J. Noble, and Geoffrey P. Alpert

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9781479814657
eISBN:
9781479830480
Item type:
book
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479814657.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The use of force by police has proven to be a challenging and divisive issue in the United States, and for good reason. Philosophically, the government’s use of violence against community members is ... More


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