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Notes on Prejudice

Isaiah Berlin

in Liberty

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199249893
eISBN:
9780191598807
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019924989X.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This briefest of notes, written to help a friend speaking to a popular audience, gives an informal statement of Berlin’s views on liberty, nationalism and the plurality of human goals. It excoriates ... More


Openness to Small Parties: The Micro‐Mega Rule and the Seat Product

Rein Taagepera

in Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199287741
eISBN:
9780191713408
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

The micro-mega rule says that for representation of small parties, it helps to have large assembly sizes, large district magnitudes, and large quotas or large gaps between divisors in seat allocation ... More


Canada: Sticking to First‐Past‐the‐Post, for the Time Being

Louis Massicotte

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Canada has employed the single-member plurality electoral system at all elections to the national parliament and for most elections to provincial legislatures. In recent years, criticism of this ... More


India: Two‐Party Contests within a Multiparty System

Anthony Heath, Siana Glouharova, and Oliver Heath

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

India is the world’s biggest, and in many respects, most remarkable democracy. Despite vast social and linguistic diversity, its political system has been surprisingly stable and effective. India has ... More


The United Kingdom: Plurality Rule Under Siege

Paul Mitchell

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

‘Times they are a-changing . . .’ is at the source of the Westminster model. Or are they? Electoral reformers are still trying to replace Britain’s single-member plurality electoral system with some ... More


Italy: A Case of Fragmented Bipolarism

Roberto D'Alimonte

in The Politics of Electoral Systems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199257560
eISBN:
9780191603280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199257566.003.0012
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Given that Italy has had one of the few perfectly bicameral parliamentary systems (in which each house has equal powers), there are two different electoral systems to analyse. These electoral systems ... More


Introduction

JC Beall

in Logical Pluralism

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199288403
eISBN:
9780191700491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288403.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This book presents and defends what it calls logical pluralism, the view that there is more than one genuine deductive consequence relation, and that this plurality arises not merely because there ... More


Inherent and Contingent Factors in Reform Initiation in Plurality Systems *

Matthew Søberg Shugart

in To Keep or To Change First Past The Post?: The Politics of Electoral Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539390
eISBN:
9780191715761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539390.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Electoral reform may be explained through a model that incorporates both inherent and contingent factors. An electoral system has an inherent tendency towards “systemic failure,” understood as ... More


Electoral Reform in the UK: A Veto Player Analysis *

Adrian Blau

in To Keep or To Change First Past The Post?: The Politics of Electoral Reform

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199539390
eISBN:
9780191715761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539390.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

This chapter uses veto-player theory to explore the prospects for electoral reform in the UK. The chapter introduces the idea of ‘path-setting’ to show how the government can help or hinder reform ... More


Democracy as a Condorcet Truth‐Tracker

Robert E. Goodin

in Reflective Democracy

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199256174
eISBN:
9780191599354
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199256179.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

It is a long‐standing debate within political philosophy generally whether we want our political outcomes to be right or whether we want them to be fair; while democratic theory has traditionally ... More


Choosing an Electoral System 1

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This is the third of four chapters that discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the research on democratization in southern Africa that is described in the book, and deals with the theoretical ... More


Plurality Case Study Election Results: Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe 1

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter and the next describe the political histories of the case studies presented in the book, paying particular attention to their democratic transitions, institutional choices, and ... More


PR Case Study Election Results: South Africa and Namibia

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

This chapter and the previous one (Ch. 5) describe the political histories of the case studies presented in the book, paying particular attention to their democratic transitions, institutional ... More


Re‐running Elections Under Alternative Electoral Systems

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

Together with Chs 5 and 6, Ch. 7 forms the historical, empirical, and quantitative heart of the book, providing the foundational evidence against which earlier postulated theories are gauged (Ch 1 ... More


Cross‐Country Comparisons: Legislative and Executive Inclusion

Andrew Reynolds

in Electoral Systems and Democratization in Southern Africa

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295105
eISBN:
9780191600128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295103.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Democratization

A comparative analysis is given of both actual and simulated election results of the five country case studies (from Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) presented in the book, along ... More


Electoral Reform in Bolivia: Origins of the Mixed‐Member Proportional System

René Antonio Mayorga

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In 1994, Bolivia undertook a major constitutional and electoral reform, in which a closed‐list proportional representation (PR) system for the Lower House of the Congress was replaced by a ... More


Reforming Electoral Systems in Mexico

Juan Molinar Horcasitas and Jeffrey A. Weldon

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mexico has a long experience with highly majoritarian variants of mixed‐member systems, but has recently been made more proportional in a process of democratization. Electoral reform has developed ... More


The Consequences of Mexico's Mixed‐Member Electoral System, 1988–1997

Jeffrey A. Weldon

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0021
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mexico has experimented with mixed‐member electoral systems for many years, is probably the second oldest mixed‐member system after Germany, and has modified its mixed system more than any other ... More


Electoral Rules and Electoral Reform in Canada

R. Kent Weaver

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0025
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The puzzle addressed by this chapter is why electoral reform for the Canadian House of Commons has so rarely made it to the agenda, let alone to adoption, despite the existence of widely recognized ... More


Mixed‐Member Electoral Systems: A Definition and Typology

Matthew Soberg Shugart and Martin P. Wattenberg

in Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199257683
eISBN:
9780191600241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019925768X.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Mixed‐member electoral systems are described as a mixture of two principles of electoral system design: majoritarian systems, which usually have single‐seat districts with plurality rule and tend to ... More


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