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Gene Pleiotropy and Evolution of Protein Sequence

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

The concept of gene pleiotropy may play a key role in developing an integrated view of protein evolution. Although the capacity of a gene that may affect multiple phenotypic characters has been used ... More


Genetics of Late Life Involve Antagonistic Pleiotropy

Laurence D. Muller

in Does Aging Stop?

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199754229
eISBN:
9780199896714
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199754229.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Reverse evolution experiments implicate antagonistic pleiotropy in the evolution of both mortality and fecundity during late life. Hybridization experiments do not implicate mutation accumulation in ... More


The logic of aging

Jan Vijg

in Aging of the Genome: The dual role of DNA in life and death

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198569237
eISBN:
9780191728242
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569237.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter addresses the question of why we age. Topics discussed include aging genes, pleiotropy in aging, interrupting the pathways of aging, longevity-assurance genes, and somatic damage and the ... More


Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Thomas Flatt and Andreas Heyland (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Life history theory seeks to explain the evolution of the major features of life cycles by analysing the ecological factors that shape age-specific schedules of growth, reproduction, and survival and ... More


The genetics and evolution of flowering time variation in plants: Identifying genes that control a key life history transition

Joshua A. Banta and Michael D. Purugganan

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The ecologically appropriate timing of flowering is a crucial life history in plants, and marks the transition from vegetative to reproductive stages in the life cycle. This chapter discusses the ... More


Cystic fibrosis

Robert L. Perlman

in Evolution and Medicine

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199661718
eISBN:
9780191774720
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661718.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Cystic fibrosis, the most common severe autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations, illustrates many important concepts about the relationship between genes and disease. The Cystic ... More


Molecular stress pathways and the evolution of life histories in reptiles

Tonia S. Schwartz and Anne M. Bronikowski

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter synthesizes the empirical evidence for reptiles on how environmental stresses can induce molecular stress pathways. In an evolutionary framework, it describes how these pathways can ... More


Long-term Response: 3. Adaptive Walks

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198830870
eISBN:
9780191868986
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198830870.003.0027
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

One model for long-term evolution is an adaptive walk, a series of fixations of mutations that moves the trait mean toward some optimal value. The foundation for this idea traces back to Fisher's ... More


The quantitative genetics of senescence in wild animals

Anne Charmantier, Jon E. Brommer, and Daniel H. Nussey

in Quantitative Genetics in the Wild

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199674237
eISBN:
9780191779275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674237.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Ecology

There is now overwhelming empirical evidence for age-related declines in fitness-related traits, i.e. senescence, during adulthood in wild vertebrate populations, presumably underpinned by ... More


Through a Glass, Clearly: Experimental Evolution as a Window on Adaptive Genome Evolution

Frank Rosenzweig and Gavin Sherlock

in Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247666
eISBN:
9780520944473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247666.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explores recent examples where experimental evolution, empowered by genomic technologies and increasingly informed by systems biology, has fundamentally advanced our understanding of ... More


Individual differences: The unique woman

in A mind of her own: The evolutionary psychology of women

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199609543
eISBN:
9780191747717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199609543.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The early aim of evolutionary psychology was to explain human universals. Recently attention has turned to explaining individual differences which present a theoretical challenge. Differences in ... More


Structure: How Genotypes, Traits, Strategies, and Environment Interact

Douglas W. Morris and Per Lundberg

in Pillars of Evolution: Fundamental principles of the eco-evolutionary process

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780198568797
eISBN:
9780191774690
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568797.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Our ability to predict the dynamics of evolution depends critically on its underlying genetic and environmental structure. The structure is defined by the ways that traits map onto fitness. The ... More


Ersatz PCD: The Non-Adaptive Explanations for PCD

Pierre M. Durand

in The Evolutionary Origins of Life and Death

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780226747620
eISBN:
9780226747934
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226747934.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The importance of evolutionary-based definitions that distinguish true PCD from ersatz PCD are highlighted. In contrast to PCD as an adaptation, there are occasions when programmed forms of cell ... More


Ecological Specialization and Generalization

Douglas J. Futuyma

in Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195131543
eISBN:
9780197561461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195131543.003.0019
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Anyone who is even slightly acquainted with plants or animals knows that different species inhabit different parts of the world, live in different habitats, and, in the case of animals, eat some ... More


Evolvability and Its Evolvability

Alessandro Minelli

in Challenging the Modern Synthesis: Adaptation, Development, and Inheritance

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780199377176
eISBN:
9780199377190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199377176.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

No universally accepted notion of evolvability is available, focus being alternatively put onto either genetic or phenotypic change. The heuristic power of this concept is best found when considering ... More


“There Is More Light Here”: Re-illuminating the Categories of Mental Illness

Matthew L. Baum

in The Neuroethics of Biomarkers: What the Development of Bioprediction Means for Moral Responsibility, Justice, and the Nature of Mental Disorder

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780190236267
eISBN:
9780190236281
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190236267.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

In this chapter, the chapter uses a fable and the story of Shakespeare’s King Lear as analytic lancets to cut into current concepts of individual disorders within psychiatry. The chapter argues that ... More


Darwin’s molecule: Evolutionary insights into mechanisms of biochemical adaptation and protein evolution

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 9 discusses conceptual issues in protein evolution and provides a synthesis of lessons learned from studies of hemoglobin function. Using hemoglobin as a model molecule, we can exploit an ... More


Life eternal in the face of senescence

Geoffrey E. Hill

in Mitonuclear Ecology

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198818250
eISBN:
9780191859465
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198818250.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Unlike prokaryotes, eukaryotes are born, mature, grow old, and die. Why death is inevitable for all complex life is among the most important questions in evolutionary biology. The mitochondrial ... More


Phenotypic plasticity

Karen D. Williams and Marla B. Sokolowski

in Insect Behavior: From Mechanisms to Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198797500
eISBN:
9780191838842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797500.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Why is there so much variation in insect behavior? This chapter will address the sources of behavioral variability, with a particular focus on phenotypic plasticity. Variation in social, nutritional, ... More


Adaptations to Subterranean Life

David C. Culver and Tanja Pipan

in The Biology of Caves and Other Subterranean Habitats

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
June 2019
ISBN:
9780198820765
eISBN:
9780191860485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198820765.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

The loss of characters, especially eyes and pigment, in subterranean animals has attracted the attention of biologists since their first discovery centuries ago. Adaptationist ideas with regard to ... More


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