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The Final Frontier

Roy Livermore

in The Tectonic Plates are Moving!

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198717867
eISBN:
9780191860492
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198717867.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics, History of Physics

After fifty years, you’d have thought that Harry Hess’ gloomy prognosis would have come to pass and plate tectonics research would by now be reduced to a mopping-up exercise. Nothing, however, could ... More


Serpentinites and Other Ultramafic Rocks: Why They Are Important for Earth’s History and Possibly for Its Future

Eldridge M. Moores

in Serpentine: The Evolution and Ecology of a Model System

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520268357
eISBN:
9780520948457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520268357.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter focuses on the general nature and geologic history of serpentine and its antecedent related rocks, and how regional differences in serpentinites relate to the specific history of a ... More


Mountains, Trenches, Sunken Islands: The Great Revolution in Earth Science

Wolf H. Berger

in Ocean: Reflections on a Century of Exploration

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247789
eISBN:
9780520942547
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247789.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter explains the concepts of continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics, and mantle convection to address the origin of the most striking features of the Earth’s surface. These ... More


Tectonics and Geomorphology of Africa during the Phanerozoic

Timothy C. Partridge

in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520257214
eISBN:
9780520945425
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257214.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The Cenozoic evolution of Africa cannot be comprehended satisfactorily without reference to the early history of the Gondwana supercontinent and the events that occurred during and following its ... More


The Discovery of the Century

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0019
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter focuses on what turns out to be the discovery of the twentieth century: the key insight that turned seafloor spreading and continental drift into plate tectonics. In his 1965 article on ... More


Life’s Tectonics

Paul D. Lowman and Nathan Currier

in Chimeras and Consciousness: Evolution of the Sensory Self

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015394
eISBN:
9780262312462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015394.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter argues that plate tectonics, which strikingly differentiate the living orb from the dead spheres of Mars and Venus, is made possible by liquid water. It shows that cycled and retained ... More


The Tectonic Plates are Moving!

Roy Livermore

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198717867
eISBN:
9780191860492
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198717867.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics, History of Physics

Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and ... More


Life before Oxygen

Donald Eugene Canfield

in Oxygen: A Four Billion Year History

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145020
eISBN:
9781400849888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145020.003.0002
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter discusses the nature of life on ancient Earth before the evolution of oxygen production. It suggests that the Earth enjoyed an active and diverse biosphere well before the evolution of ... More


All This Rubbish

James Lawrence Powell

in Four Revolutions in the Earth Sciences: From Heresy to Truth

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164481
eISBN:
9780231538459
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164481.003.0020
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter takes a look at some of the scientists who continued to reject continental drift. By the 1970s the majority of geologists had come to accept drift, but some never did: Walter Bucher, ... More


Granites and plate tectonics

Anne Nédélec and Jean-Luc Bouchez

in Granites: Petrology, Structure, Geological Setting, and Metallogeny

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198705611
eISBN:
9780191774515
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705611.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

In this chapter, granitic magmas are examined with respect to their geodynamical settings (intraplate or at plate margins) differing in magma sources of differing thermal conditions. Several ... More


Empirical: The Physical Sciences

Peter V. Rabins

in The Why of Things: Causality in Science, Medicine, and Life

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231164726
eISBN:
9780231535458
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231164726.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter discusses three concepts, developed during the twentieth century, that have significantly influenced the current conceptualization of causality: relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and ... More


California’s Coast: Its Origins and Pre-Commission Development

Thomas J. Osborne

in Coastal Sage: Peter Douglas and the Fight to Save California's Shore

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780520283084
eISBN:
9780520958913
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520283084.003.0002
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century

The origins and natural features of California’s coast and seaward islands, which Douglas understood well, are surveyed, followed by a chronological overview of ever-increasing development from the ... More


“It Almost Came Out on Its Own”: Nature under L. J. F. Brimble and A.J.V. Gale

Melinda Baldwin

in Making "Nature": The History of a Scientific Journal

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780226261454
eISBN:
9780226261591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226261591.003.0006
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses two of Nature’s less prominent editors: Richard Gregory’s former assistants L.J.F. Brimble and A.J.V. Gale. Brimble and Gale led Nature through the difficult wartime years and ... More


Ocean: Reflections on a Century of Exploration

Wolf Berger

David Lindberg (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247789
eISBN:
9780520942547
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247789.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The past one hundred years of ocean science have been distinguished by dramatic milestones, remarkable discoveries, and major revelations. This book is a clear and lively survey of many of these ... More


Seismology and Vulcanology in Antiquity?

Hine M. Harry

in Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198152484
eISBN:
9780191710049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198152484.003.0004
Subject:
Classical Studies, European History: BCE to 500CE

According to the modern theory of plate tectonics, the African continental plate has for some millions of years been colliding with the European one in the middle of the Mediterranean. As a result ... More


Earth, Cradle of Life

John Chambers and Jacqueline Mitton

in From Dust to Life: The Origin and Evolution of Our Solar System

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780691175706
eISBN:
9781400885565
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691175706.003.0011
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter studies the composition of early Earth, which consisted of two layers: a dense iron-rich core at the center, surrounded by a thick rocky mantle. Gradually, Earth acquired a third layer, ... More


Granites: Petrology, Structure, Geological Setting, and Metallogeny

Anne Nédélec and Jean-Luc Bouchez

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198705611
eISBN:
9780191774515
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705611.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Granites are emblematic rocks developed from a magma that crystallized in the Earth’s crust. They ultimately outcrop at the surface worldwide. This book, translated and updated from the original ... More


The Explorers

Claude A. Piantadosi

in Mankind Beyond Earth: The History, Science, and Future of Human Space Exploration

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231162432
eISBN:
9780231531030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231162432.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter begins with a discussion of the characteristics of explorers. It then turns to the history of polar science to illustrate why human space exploration seems so slow moving. It focuses on ... More


Ocean History and Climate Evolution

Matthieu Roy-Barman and Catherine Jeandel

in Marine Geochemistry: Ocean Circulation, Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2016
ISBN:
9780198787495
eISBN:
9780191829604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198787495.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Geophysics, Atmospheric and Environmental Physics

Over Earth history, there has been an interplay between the ocean and the climate evolution and this will continue in the future. Elemental and isotopic tracers called proxies are used to reconstruct ... More


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