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Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Fabrizio Benedetti

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

One of the most widespread words in medicine is the placebo and placebo effect, although it is not always clear what it means exactly. Recent progress in biomedical research has allowed a better ... More


Clinical Asthma Trials

Lainie Friedman Ross

in Children in Medical Research: Access versus Protection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199273287
eISBN:
9780191603655
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199273286.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines four ethical issues raised by clinical asthma research involving children subjects: (1) to what extent are clinical asthma trials designed as placebo-controlled trials as ... More


 Pharmacological and Psychological Interventions

Walter Glannon

in Bioethics and the Brain

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195307788
eISBN:
9780199867431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307788.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter assesses the potential benefits and harms of actual and possible uses of psychopharmacological agents for prevention, therapy, and enhancement. These include using drugs to prevent or ... More


Therapeutic mystique

William A. Silverman

in Where's the Evidence?: Debates in Modern Medicine

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192630889
eISBN:
9780191723568
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192630889.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a 1988 commentary on the role of the placebo effect in treatments. Patients appear to respond best when they ‘have faith’ in their doctors. Doctors also seem more effective when ... More


Brain Enhancement and Other Magical Beliefs

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

No drugs or nutrients are currently available that can reverse the primary cause of cognitive decline: normal aging. Also, it is currently impossible to enhance the function of a normal brain. These ... More


The Biology of Positive Emotions and Health

Andrea H. Marques and Esther M. Sternberg

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter reviews existing literature on the biological pathways and mechanisms involved in social interactions and positive emotions and their potential relationship to enhanced health. The first ... More


Religion Is (or Was) an Adaptation

Matt J. Rossano

in Supernatural Selection: How Religion Evolved

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195385816
eISBN:
9780199870080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385816.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Chapter 7 argues that religion was a cultural adaptation. In its earliest form, religion was shamanism. A primary focus of shamanistic rituals was to bring about community and individual healing. ... More


Demand Characteristics and the Concept of Quasi-Controls 1

Martin T. Orne

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Here, the assumption is that many subjects who volunteer for research participation have a tendency to play the role of the “good subject” (an ironic term) who is both highly sensitive and responsive ... More


Protecting human subjects in brain research: a pragmatic perspective

Franklin G. Miller and Joseph J. Fins

in Neuroethics: Defining the issues in theory, practice, and policy

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198567219
eISBN:
9780191724084
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567219.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter elucidates ethical considerations in designing and carrying out clinical research on people with brain disorders based on an approach to research ethics derived from American ... More


Psychopharmacology of Human Aggression: Laboratory and Clinical Studies

Don R. Cherek, Oleg V. Tcheremissine, and Scott D. Lane

in Biology of Aggression

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195168761
eISBN:
9780199865444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168761.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

This chapter discusses the association between drugs and human aggression, laboratory studies of human aggression, and effects of drugs on human aggression under laboratory conditions. It argues that ... More


Treating the Disease, the Body, or the Patient

Eric J. Cassell

in The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780195156164
eISBN:
9780199999880
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156164.003.0008
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Palliative Medicine and Older People

This chapter discusses the treatment of the disease, of the body, or of the patient. It first looks at identifying the best treatment and then moves on to the effects of patients on treatments. The ... More


Quasi-Experimental Group Designs

Bruce A Thyer

in Quasi-Experimental Research Designs

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195387384
eISBN:
9780199932085
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195387384.003.0003
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

The quasi-experimental designs compare the outcomes of social work for a group of clients who receive a novel intervention that is the focus on investigation, against the outcomes observed by a ... More


Belief, Hope, and Healing

Robert A. Scott

in Miracle Cures: Saints, Pilgrimage, and the Healing Powers of Belief

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520262751
eISBN:
9780520946200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520262751.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

In matters of health, nothing is more fundamental to the practice of appealing to saints than hope and belief: the hope that cures for illness are possible and the abiding conviction that saints can ... More


The Language of Clinical Trials

Curtis L. Meinert

in An Insider’s Guide to Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199742967
eISBN:
9780199897278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199742967.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter presents definitions of several terms commonly used in clinical trials. These include randomization, stratification, placebo and sham treatments, baseline, analysis principles, dropout, ... More


Placebo Effects: 2nd Edition: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Fabrizio Benedetti

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2014
ISBN:
9780198705086
eISBN:
9780191789151
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705086.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

One of the most widespread words in medicine is placebo and placebo effect, although it is not always clear what it means exactly. Recent progress in biomedical research has allowed a better ... More


“The Powerful Placebo”

John S. Haller

in Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169042
eISBN:
9780231537704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter studies the role of placebo in medicine. As a product of postmodernist medicine, the placebo had undermined the positivist model of biomedicine by interjecting subjectivity, uncertainty, ... More


Placebos as social constructs to elucidate human behavior

Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter highlights how this book integrates perspectives from medicine and social science to glimpse the many future directions of placebos. It discusses how the chapters build on a broad yet ... More


Introduction: placebos in modern society

Veronica de Jong and Cory S. Harris

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Introducing the major themes of this book, the first chapter briefly summarizes major research accomplishments and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to medical placebos. It then calls attention ... More


Placebo science in medical education

Natasha K. J. Campbell and Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

In the past, unbeknownst to many healers, medical treatments owed most, if not all, of their effectiveness to placebo effects. Currently (and again unbeknownst to many healers), placebo effects still ... More


“Take two and vote in the morning”: reflections on the political placebo effect

Michael Orsini and Paul Saurette

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The use of medical metaphors in politics is a well-honed rhetorical strategy. Sometimes these metaphors help clarify the political world; other times, they hide more truth than they reveal. This ... More


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