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Demand Characteristics and the Concept of Quasi-Controls 1

Martin T. Orne

in Artifacts in Behavioral Research: Robert Rosenthal and Ralph L. Rosnow's Classic Books

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385540
eISBN:
9780199869824
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

Here, the assumption is that many subjects who volunteer for research participation have a tendency to play the role of the “good subject” (an ironic term) who is both highly sensitive and responsive ... More


Belief, Hope, and Healing

Robert A. Scott

in Miracle Cures: Saints, Pilgrimage, and the Healing Powers of Belief

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520262751
eISBN:
9780520946200
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520262751.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, World Religions

In matters of health, nothing is more fundamental to the practice of appealing to saints than hope and belief: the hope that cures for illness are possible and the abiding conviction that saints can ... More


Brain Enhancement and Other Magical Beliefs

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

No drugs or nutrients are currently available that can reverse the primary cause of cognitive decline: normal aging. Also, it is currently impossible to enhance the function of a normal brain. These ... More


The Biology of Positive Emotions and Health

Andrea H. Marques and Esther M. Sternberg

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter reviews existing literature on the biological pathways and mechanisms involved in social interactions and positive emotions and their potential relationship to enhanced health. The first ... More


Placebo science in medical education

Natasha K. J. Campbell and Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

In the past, unbeknownst to many healers, medical treatments owed most, if not all, of their effectiveness to placebo effects. Currently (and again unbeknownst to many healers), placebo effects still ... More


“Take two and vote in the morning”: reflections on the political placebo effect

Michael Orsini and Paul Saurette

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0014
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The use of medical metaphors in politics is a well-honed rhetorical strategy. Sometimes these metaphors help clarify the political world; other times, they hide more truth than they reveal. This ... More


Complementary and Alternative Medicine’s Challenge: A Case Study

John S. Haller

in Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231169042
eISBN:
9780231537704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231169042.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter identifies the differences that separate homeopathy from biomedicine. The tension between homeopathy and conventional medicine is essentially that of two epistemologically different ... More


Introduction: placebos in modern society

Veronica de Jong and Cory S. Harris

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Introducing the major themes of this book, the first chapter briefly summarizes major research accomplishments and remaining knowledge gaps with respect to medical placebos. It then calls attention ... More


Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Amir Raz and Cory Harris (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This book integrates perspectives from medicine, the social sciences, and beyond to explore the many facets and impacts of placebos in the twenty-first century. The chapter authors build on a broad ... More


Placebolicious: the many flavors of placebos in Western diets and food cultures

Cory S. Harris and Timothy Johns

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Food and medicine share an inseparable history with essential evolutionary underpinnings. In addition to nutritional, medicinal, or toxic components, the tastes, colors, shapes, names, and labels of ... More


How Expectancies Shape Consumption Experiences

Plassmann Hilke and D. Wager Tor

in The Interdisciplinary Science of Consumption

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780262027670
eISBN:
9780262325387
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262027670.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

In this chapter we review behavioral and neuroscientific studies that investigate how expectations shape our affective experience. Drawing on existing studies in the domain of negative affective ... More


Suggestion, placebos, and false memories

Melanie K. T. Takarangi and Elizabeth F. Loftus

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Two streams of research—on false memories, and on the placebo effect—have developed largely independently of one another. This chapter discusses the role of suggestion in creating both false memories ... More


The Generation of Evidence in Medicine: Evaluating the Benefits and Harms of Treatment

Carol M. Ashton and Nelda P. Wray

in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Evidence, Medicine, and Policy

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199968565
eISBN:
9780199346080
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199968565.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Federal mandates for comparative effectiveness research enacted during the 2000’s are intended to increase the kind of high-quality evidence that doctors and patients need for optimal clinical ... More


Deception in research on the placebo effect

David Wendler and Leora C. Swartzman

in The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199896202
eISBN:
9780190267681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0011
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter examines ethical issues relating to the use of deception in research on the placebo effect, with particular emphasis on experiments involving patients in clinical settings. The placebo ... More


Precincts of Care in CAM Research

Colleen Derkatch

in Bounding Biomedicine: Evidence and Rhetoric in the New Science of Alternative Medicine

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226345840
eISBN:
9780226345987
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226345987.003.0005
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Central to the question of methodology in research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the practitioner-patient relationship, the most unambiguously rhetorical element of clinical ... More


Looking at placebos through a cultural lens and finding meaning

Daniel E. Moerman

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter argues that the “placebo effect” does not exist; placebos do, but they are inert and therefore do not have an effect. Yet often enough, people do respond after placebo administration. ... More


Pills in a pretty box: social sources of the placebo effect

Stewart Justman

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

The placebo effect cannot be reduced to the expectation of a patient in a social vacuum like those engineered in many studies where placebos serve either as controls or as the focus of research. It ... More


Healing words: the placebo effect and journalism at the mind–body boundary

Steve Silberman

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter is a personal reflection of “The placebo problem”—an article on the role of the placebo effect in clinical drug trials published in Wire dmagazine in 2009. The chapter recollects the ... More


Placebos as social constructs to elucidate human behavior

Amir Raz

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter highlights how this book integrates perspectives from medicine and social science to glimpse the many future directions of placebos. It discusses how the chapters build on a broad yet ... More


Trust and the placebo effect

Marie Prévost, Anna Zuckerman, and Ian Gold

in Placebo Talks: Modern perspectives on placebos in society

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780199680702
eISBN:
9780191760679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680702.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Clinical Psychology

Placebo effects operate through the sociocultural beliefs that an injection, or a pill, is a healing agent in itself, independently of its actual constitution. These beliefs are naturally tightly ... More


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