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Enhancing Flower Colour

Beverley J. Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering: An integrated approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565970
eISBN:
9780191714009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565970.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The production of coloured tissues, particularly insect-attracting petals, depends upon the synthesis of pigments. Plants are able to mix, modify and enhance pigments to produce a vast array of final ... More


Macular Pigment: Nature’s Notch Filter

J. D. Moreland and S. Westland

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0028
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Macular pigment (MP) is a natural filter with ‘notch’ transmission characteristics. This chapter examines the effects of MP on surface colours in Normal and Anomalous Trichromats for a database of ... More


Colouring the Flower

Beverley J. Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering: An integrated approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565970
eISBN:
9780191714009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565970.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

One of the most obvious ways in which flowers differ from one another is in their colour. This colour is usually the result of pigment deposition in the petals, but in some species brightly coloured ... More


Photosynthetic Pigments: Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, and Phycobilins

Thomas S. Bianchi and Elizabeth A. Canuel

in Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134147
eISBN:
9781400839100
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134147.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the primary photosynthetic pigments used in absorbing photosynthetically active radiation, which include chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilins—with chlorophyll representing ... More


Visual Pigments and Photoreceptors

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on visual pigments and photoreceptors. In living things, photoreception inevitably begins with a photochemical event—a molecule intercepts a photon of light and is somehow ... More


Advertisements 1: Visual Signals and Floral Color

Pat Willmer

in Pollination and Floral Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128610
eISBN:
9781400838943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines how color interacts with the other visual signals from floral size, shape, and outline in enhancing floral attraction to visitors. Visual attraction by flowers is linked to ... More


Respiratory systems

A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

in The Evolution of Organ Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566687
eISBN:
9780191718007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566687.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Oxygen uptake is essential for animals, and many animals take up oxygen through their external surface. In these cases particular respiratory structures are not formed; in water these are generally ... More


Knowledge in Motion: Following Itineraries of Matter in the Early Modern World

Pamela H. Smith

in Cultures in Motion

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159096
eISBN:
9781400849895
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159096.003.0005
Subject:
History, World Modern History

This chapter focuses on “itineraries of matter,” or objects as traveling carriers of cultural practices and meanings, in the early modern world. It examines the role of red in the transmission of ... More


Evolution of the Vertebrate Eye

James K. Bowmaker

in How Animals See the World: Comparative Behavior, Biology, and Evolution of Vision

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195334654
eISBN:
9780199933167
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334654.003.0024
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter describes the evolution of vertebrate “camera” eyes and concentrates on color vision and visual pigments. The vertebrate camera eye with a lens, a variable pupil aperture, and a ... More


Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

Joel Bernstein

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780199655441
eISBN:
9780191872853
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199655441.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

First recognized in 1822, polymorphism of crystals is now a widely recognized and observed phenomenon, with both fundamental and commercial ramifications in disciplines and industries that study and ... More


Materials and case studies: how to meet the needs

Gilberto Artioli

in Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage: An introduction to the application of materials science to archaeometry and conservation science

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199548262
eISBN:
9780191723308
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548262.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

The materials science aspects of cultural heritage materials are treated in detail, focusing on their physico-chemical and engineering properties, on the production technologies, and on the processes ... More


Explaining Looks

Austen Clark

in Sensory Qualities

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198236801
eISBN:
9780191679360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198236801.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

In 1824, the French chemist M. E. Chevreul travelled to the Gobelin tapestry works to respond to complaints of the weavers that some of the dyes were inferior, and rapidly faded or changed in hue ... More


Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

Joel Bernstein

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199236565
eISBN:
9780191707940
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199236565.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Polymorphism — the multiplicity of structures or forms — is a term used in many disciplines. In chemistry, it refers to the existence of more than one crystal structure for a particular chemical ... More


In the Eye of the Beholder: Color Vision and the Quantification of Color

Geoffrey E. Hill

in A Red Bird in a Brown Bag: The Function and Evolution of Colorful Plumage in the House Finch

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195148480
eISBN:
9780199893683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148480.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter contrasts the tri-stimulus visual system of humans, based on three visual cones, with the tetra-stimulus visual system of birds, based on four visual cones. A key difference between the ... More


You Are What You Eat: Plumage Pigments and Carotenoid Physiology

Geoffrey E. Hill

in A Red Bird in a Brown Bag: The Function and Evolution of Colorful Plumage in the House Finch

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195148480
eISBN:
9780199893683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148480.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The red coloration of male House Finches results from carotenoid pigmentation, and this chapter reviews the physiology of carotenoid pigmentation of feathers. House Finches were originally supposed ... More


A Matter of Condition: The Effects of Environment on Plumage Coloration

Geoffrey E. Hill

in A Red Bird in a Brown Bag: The Function and Evolution of Colorful Plumage in the House Finch

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195148480
eISBN:
9780199893683
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148480.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the effects of environmental conditions during molting on the coloration of red plumage in male House Finches. It shows that access to carotenoid pigments during molting have a ... More


Electrons and X-Rays Reveal the Structure of Rhodopsin: A Prototypical G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Implications for Colour Vision

Jonathan J. Ruprecht and Gebhard F. X. Schertler

in Normal and Defective Colour Vision

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525301
eISBN:
9780191584947
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525301.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

A fundamental aim in vision research is to elucidate the factors that subtly modify the absorption maxima of the visual pigments — the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) responsible for transducing ... More


Monitoring Pigment Pattern Morphs of Northern Leopard Frogs

Robert G. Mckinnell, David M. Hoppe, and Beverly K. Mckinnell

in Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520235922
eISBN:
9780520929432
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520235922.003.0049
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) are vulnerable to a herpesvirus-induced cancer of the mesonephros and burnsi differ little in susceptibility to the cancer compared with wild-type frogs. Ranid ... More


Structure and Function of the Retina in Aquatic Tetrapods

Tom Reuter and Leo Peichl

in Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252783
eISBN:
9780520934122
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252783.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the anatomy and physiology of the retina in aquatic tetrapods. It focuses on the input and output stages of retinal processing: the photoreceptors and the ganglion cells. It ... More


Polymorphism of pigments and dyes

Joel Bernstein

in Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
July 2020
ISBN:
9780199655441
eISBN:
9780191872853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199655441.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The occurrence of the polymorphism of pigments is surveyed, with a special emphasis on three of the most important classes of pigments: quinacridones, perylenes, and phthalocyanines. Organic pigments ... More


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