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Population approaches to increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour among children and adults

Jo Salmon and Abby C. King

in Obesity Epidemiology: From Aetiology to Public Health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199571512
eISBN:
9780191595097
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571512.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents a selected overview of the latest evidence for population approaches for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour in different population segments (e.g., ... More


Physical Activity Measurements

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins by discussing conceptual definitions and the multidimensional aspects of physical activity and exercise. It then describes self-reported methods and monitoring devices for ... More


Physical Activity

Stephanie Zaza, Peter A. Briss, and Kate W. Harris

in The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What works to promote health?

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195151091
eISBN:
9780199864973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195151091.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter summarizes the conclusions and recommendations from the Task Force on interventions to increase physical activity using three types of approaches: informational, behavioral and social, ... More


What environmental changes can increase physical activity?

Hugo Crombie, Amanda Killoran, and Bhash Naidoo

in Evidence-based Public Health: Effectiveness and efficiency

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199563623
eISBN:
9780191722554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563623.003.026
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the development of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) public health guidance on physical activity and the environment. The guidance was aimed at ... More


Physical Activity and Cancer: The Evidence, The Issues, and the Challenges

Barbara Sternfeld and I-Min Lee

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews data on the associations between physical activity and the development of various site-specific cancers. The observed associations will be considered in terms of generally ... More


Measurement of Physical Activity and Inactivity in Epidemiologic Studies

Kelley K. Pettee, Kristi L. Storti, Barbara E. Ainsworth, and Andrea M. Kriska

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an overview of tools used to assess physical activity and inactivity. These include objective measures of energy expenditure, objective measures of physical activity, objective ... More


Current Issues in Examining Dose-Response Relationships Between Physical Activity and Health Outcomes

I-Min Lee

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter aims to stimulate epidemiologic research on dose-response relationships in physical activity. It discusses issues pertinent to assessing dose-response relationships between physical ... More


Design of Present-Day Epidemiologic Studies of Physical Activity and Health

I-Min Lee and Ralph S. Paffenbarger Jr.

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter provides an in-depth discussion of two large, present-day prospective cohort studies—one in men (the Harvard Alumni Health Study) and one in women (the Nurses' Health Study)—that have ... More


Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

I-Min Lee (ed.)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

There is a large body of scientific evidence—much of this coming from epidemiologic studies—clearly documenting the benefits of physical activity for better health and increased longevity. Physical ... More


Establishing Validity and Reliability of Physical Activity Assessment Instruments

David R. Bassett Jr. and Eugene C. Fitzhugh

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter aims to provide an understanding of how to evaluate critically the validity and reliability of survey instruments for measuring physical activity. If an existing instrument were to be ... More


Lifetime lifestyles II: physical activity, the life course, and ageing

Ulf Ekelund

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Physical activity is an important modifiable factor affecting health across life, with physical inactivity now recognised as a leading risk factor for premature mortality. This chapter describes ... More


Built environment: walkability of neighbourhoods

Klaus Gebel, Adrian E Bauman, and Fiona C Bull

in Evidence-based Public Health: Effectiveness and efficiency

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199563623
eISBN:
9780191722554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563623.003.019
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the progress and issues in generating an evidence base to inform policy and practice in the area of environmental interventions and physical activity. It begins by reviewing some ... More


Physical activity programmes in high schools

Fiona Brooks and Josephine Magnusson

in Childhood Obesity Prevention: International Research, Controversies and Interventions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199572915
eISBN:
9780191595110
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572915.003.0032
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Across the lifespan physical inactivity represents a key risk to health and well-being; the World Health Organization has estimated that physical inactivity is a major contributing factor in over 1.9 ... More


Physical Activity Surveillance

Harold W. Kohl III and C. Dexter Kimsey Jr.

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews key components of physical activity surveillance, describes the main physical activity surveillance tools in the United States, illustrates (through case examples) issues in ... More


Physical Activity, Fitness, and Delayed Mortality

Michael J. Lamonte and Steven N. Blair

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A large amount of evidence from observational studies indicates that low levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with increased mortality risk. This chapter ... More


Physical Activity, Fitness, and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Gang Hu, Timo A. Lakka, and Jaakko Tuomilehto

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews current evidence regarding the role of physical activity and physical fitness in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological evidence from prospective cohort ... More


Physical Activity and Weight Control

John M. Jakicic, Amy D. Otto, Kristen Polzien, and Kelliann Davis

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews studies on the role of physical activity in weight control. Excess body weight is linked to increased risk of numerous chronic diseases, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, ... More


Individual and environmental interventions to prevent obesity in African American children and adolescents

Portia Jackson, Jammie Hopkins, and Toni Yancey

in Childhood Obesity Prevention: International Research, Controversies and Interventions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199572915
eISBN:
9780191595110
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572915.003.0029
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

African-American children and adolescents are at high risk for obesity, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, and related co-morbidities. According to data from the National Health and Nutrition ... More


Evolution of Physical Activity Recommendations

William L. Haskell

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on the scientific rationale and evolution of guidelines and recommendations made by various government agencies or professional organizations regarding the role of physical ... More


Physical Activity, Fitness, and the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Shari S. Bassuk and JoAnn E. Manson

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews recent observational and clinical trial findings regarding the role of physical activity and fitness in preventing clinical and asymptomatic vascular disease. Dose-response ... More


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