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Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Randy J. Nelson, David L. Denlinger, and David E. Somers (eds)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Life evolves in a cyclic environment, and to be successful, organisms must adapt not only to their spatial habitat, but also to their temporal habitat. How do plants and animals determine the time of ... More


Photoperiodism and the annual cycle of black-capped chickadees

Leslie S. Phillmore and Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton

in Ecology and Behavior of Chickadees and Titmice: an integrated approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198569992
eISBN:
9780191717802
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569992.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

This chapter assesses the influence of photoperiod as a mechanism for regulating annual cycles. In particular, the interactive influence of changing light levels on regulating the annual hormone ... More


Seasonality and Photoperiodism in Fungi

Till Roenneberg, Tanja Radic, Manfred Gödel, and Martha Merrow

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Compared to the overwhelming evidence of active seasonal adaptation in plants and animals, little is known about seasonality and photoperiodism in fungi. To approach this topic in any organism, ... More


Photoperiodism in Mollusks

Hideharu Numata and Hiroko Udaka

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter focuses on photoperiodism in gastropods, particularly terrestrial and freshwater species in the order Pulmonata, in which photoperiodism has been intensively examined. It also suggests ... More


Photoperiodism in Copepods

Nancy H. Marcus and Lindsay P. Scheef

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter summarizes studies of photoperiodism in copepods and suggests directions for additional research. There is ample evidence that several copepod functions manifest a pattern of rhythmicity ... More


Photoperiodism in Insects: Migration and Diapause Responses

David S. Saunders

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Higher latitudes are characterized by marked seasonal changes in climate, with winters becoming colder and longer to the north. Being “cold-blooded” animals, most insects find it difficult to cope ... More


Photoperiodism in Insects: Perception of Light and the Role of Clock Genes

Shin G. Goto, Sakiko Shiga, and Hideharu Numata

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter proposes that some circadian clock genes may be responsible for photoperiodism. Many studies have shown the importance of the brain for photoperiodism, and thus these genes must be ... More


Photoperiodism in Insects: Molecular Basis and Consequences of Diapause

Karen D. Williams, Paul S. Schmidt, and Marla B. Sokolowski

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Diapause is a state of dormancy that allows an insect to escape in time. In diapause, the insect postpones development or reproduction in response to specific cues that anticipate the onset of ... More


Photoperiodism in Insects: Effects on Morphology

H. Frederik Nijhout

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the role of photoperiodism on phenotype expression in insects. Topics covered include general patterns of expression of seasonal morphs in insects, the interaction of ... More


Photoperiodism in Insects: Aphid Polyphenism

Jim Hardie

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the complicated role of photoperiod in regulating life history traits in aphids. As for all organisms responding to day length, aphids require a photoreceptor system that can ... More


Photoperiodism in Fishes

Bertil Borg

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter provides an overview of how the photoperiod controls seasonal cycles in fishes. Most attention is given to reproduction, but migration is also included. The chapter mainly deals with ... More


Photoperiodism in Amphibians and Reptiles

Zachary M. Weil and David Crews

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter provides a broad overview of photoperiodic regulation of reproductive and nonreproductive responses in amphibians and reptiles. It focuses mostly on laboratory investigations of ... More


Photoperiodism and Reproduction in Birds

George E. Bentley

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter describes mechanisms thought to be involved in the regulation of photoperiodism in birds. It discusses the key hormones involved in avian photoperiodism. Gonadotropins are not discussed ... More


Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Avian Photoperiodism

Takashi Yoshimura and Peter J. Sharp

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Many birds have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms and show robust responses to changing photoperiod. William Rowan is generally credited with the first demonstration of the avian ... More


Photoperiodism in Mammals: Regulation of Nonreproductive Traits

Gregory E. Demas, Zachary M. Weil, and Randy J. Nelson

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter addresses the physiological and cellular mechanisms underlying the detection of and response to environmental factors in regulating nonreproductive seasonal adaptations. Although the ... More


Photoperiodism and Reproduction in Mammals

Lance J. Kriegsfeld and Eric L. Bittman

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter provides a broad overview of seasonal breeding in mammals, emphasizing the role of photoperiod in changes in neuroendocrine function and the means by which day length affects the ... More


Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms of Mammalian Photoperiodism

David Hazlerigg

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0021
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter considers the challenge of accounting for the mechanisms behind seasonal photoperiodic timing in mammals for two well-defined seasonal responses: reproductive activation and the molting ... More


Future Directions

David L. Denlinger, David E. Somers, and Randy J. Nelson

in Photoperiodism: The Biological Calendar

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335903
eISBN:
9780199775446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335903.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This concluding chapter presents suggestions for future research in photoperiodism. Among these are how photoperiodism links with other signaling systems to exert seasonal effects, the molecular ... More


Genes under selection: Mhc and others

Jacob Höglund

in Evolutionary Conservation Genetics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199214211
eISBN:
9780191706660
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214211.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on genes under selection. Much of what is known about ‘ecologically relevant’ genetic variation at the level of DNA sequences comes from studies of genes of the major ... More


The Junco: A Common Bird and a Classic Subject for Descriptive and Experimental Studies in Evolutionary and Integrative Biology

Ellen D. Ketterson and Jonathan W. Atwell

in Snowbird: Integrative Biology and Evolutionary Diversity in the Junco

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780226330778
eISBN:
9780226330808
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226330808.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter describes how an ordinary ‘little gray bird’ became extraordinary because of its appeal to bird watchers and its fascination for scientists interested in how species form and how they ... More


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