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Genotypic Specificity of Grass-Endophyte Interactions

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

For ongoing coevolution of the grass-endophyte symbiosis through the agents of natural selection, there must be genetic variation within populations for both host and endophyte. The breeding systems ... More


Evolutionary Thermal Biology

Michael J. Angilletta

in Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and Empirical Synthesis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198570875
eISBN:
9780191718748
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570875.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Organisms use behavioural, physiological, and life-historical strategies to cope with changes in temperature over space and time. These strategies can be represented as thermal reaction norms, which ... More


Phenotypic Plasticity

Kailen A. Mooney and Anurag A. Agrawal

in Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251328
eISBN:
9780520933828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251328.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism, a single genotype, to exhibit different phenotypes in different environments. It is nearly ubiquitous in nature and occurs in various animal and ... More


Reconstructing Darwinism: from Darwin to the genome via the Modern Synthesis

Antonio Fontdevila

in The Dynamic Genome: A Darwinian Approach

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199541379
eISBN:
9780191728532
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541379.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

This chapter deals with the traditional objections to the Modern Synthesis to decide whether the genome perusal forces us to update (or change) this synthesis. After a journey from Darwin's ideas to ... More


Evolution of morphological defences

Frank Johansson and Dirk Johannes Mikolajewski

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Understanding the ecology and evolution of morphological defences in animals and plants may help us to understand and protect biodiversity. Several species of dragonfly larvae express lateral and ... More


Dispersal and phenotypic plasticity

Johan Hollander, Machteld Verzijden, Erik Svensson, and Christer Brönmark

in Animal Movement Across Scales

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199677184
eISBN:
9780191785696
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199677184.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Ecology

Virtually all species disperse to some extent. Yet, the magnitude of the dispersal rate and the scale of the environment often predispose organisms’ developmental strategies. That is whether species ... More


Phenotypic Plasticity

Massimo Pigliucci

in Evolution—the Extended Synthesis

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262513678
eISBN:
9780262315142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262513678.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter addresses the possible role of phenotypic plasticity in macroevolution. It analyzes how evolutionary biologists are now using the concept of plasticity to expand the horizons of the ... More


Evolutionary dynamics in response to climate change

Phillip Gienapp and Jon E. Brommer

in Quantitative Genetics in the Wild

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199674237
eISBN:
9780191779275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674237.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Ecology

Environmental changes lead to new or altered selection pressures and possibly also to changes in expressed genetic (co)variances. Understanding the resulting evolutionary dynamics is important for ... More


Lessons from Development, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology

Gillian Barker

in Beyond Biofatalism: Human Nature for an Evolving World

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780231171885
eISBN:
9780231540391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231171885.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Two concepts from other areas of biology can shed important light on human nature and its implications for the prospects for social change: phenotypic plasticity and niche construction. Clarifying ... More


Causes of Subindividual Variability: Mutations within individuals and organ-level responses to environmental cues are the main classes of remote causes of within-plant variability in reiterated structures.

Carlos M. Herrera

in Multiplicity in Unity: Plant Subindividual Variation and Interactions with Animals

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226327938
eISBN:
9780226327952
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226327952.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter explains the remote causes of subindividual variation, that is, those cases where reiterated parts vary because the organism's genes vary or the parts experience varied environments. ... More


Hormonally-regulated trade-offs: Evolutionary variability and phenotypic plasticity in testosterone signaling pathways

Michaela Hau and John C. Wingfield

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0026
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Hormones have been proposed as internal signals that mediate life history trade-offs in both invertebrates and vertebrates. This chapter reviews the evidence for such a role. It outlines possible ... More


Life-history patterns

Anne E. Magurran

in Evolutionary Ecology: The Trinidadian Guppy

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527855
eISBN:
9780191713576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527855.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Guppy populations differ not only in their mating tactics but also in how they make their investment in reproduction. Life history traits such as age and size at maturity, number and size of ... More


Phenotypic Plasticity of Feeding Structures in Marine Invertebrate Larvae

Justin S. McAlister and Benjamin G. Miner (eds)

in Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780198786962
eISBN:
9780191829086
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198786962.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Nearly three decades ago, biologists discovered that planktotrophic larvae of sea urchins can alter the size of their ciliated feeding structures in response to the concentration of food (i.e., ... More


How Character Displacement Unfolds

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

in Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Relatively little is known of the source of the phenotypic variation that fuels character displacement, as well as how different sources of variation affect the tempo and mode of character ... More


Genes on the Range: Population Genetics

Kevin J. Rice and Erin K. Espeland

in California Grasslands: Ecology and Management

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520252202
eISBN:
9780520933972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520252202.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses the population biology and ecological genetics of native species within California grasslands, providing many important insights into the processes of microevolutionary change ... More


Diversity, Bet-hedging, and Selection among Ideas

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter summarizes the book's main conclusions and cautions against exclusive reliance on any single approach. The book's central thesis is that nature's wisdom is found primarily in ... More


Sex differences: genetic, physiological, and ecological mechanisms

Turk Rhen

in Sex, Size and Gender Roles: Evolutionary Studies of Sexual Size Dimorphism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199208784
eISBN:
9780191709036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199208784.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Females and males share the same genome, which places a significant constraint on the evolution of sex differences. This chapter begins with a review of current theory explaining the initial ... More


Natural Selection and Microevolution

Jonathan B. Losos

in Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255913
eISBN:
9780520943735
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255913.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter demonstrates how natural selection leads to phenotypic divergence among populations, first reviewing the evidence regarding natural selection and microevolutionary change in anole ... More


Seasonal polyphenisms and environmentally induced plasticity in the Lepidoptera: The coordinated evolution of many traits on multiple levels

Paul M. Brakefield and Bas J. Zwaan

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Polyphenisms, for example in butterflies and moths, have been a constant source of inspiration to entomologists since well before Darwin's time. Initial attention from researchers was grabbed because ... More


Phenotypic plasticity

Karen D. Williams and Marla B. Sokolowski

in Insect Behavior: From Mechanisms to Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2018
ISBN:
9780198797500
eISBN:
9780191838842
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198797500.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Why is there so much variation in insect behavior? This chapter will address the sources of behavioral variability, with a particular focus on phenotypic plasticity. Variation in social, nutritional, ... More


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