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Crystallization theory

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

A basic understanding of crystallization theory exists through the phase‐diagram description. More detailed theories are available but no one theory can currently predict crystallization behaviour. ... More


Lyotropic Systems: Main Experimental Facts And Techniques

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

in The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter describes the molecules and the molecular interactions associated with the self-assembling phenomena leading to the existence of lyotropic polymorphism. It includes the description of a ... More


Phase Diagrams Of Lyotropic Mixtures

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

in The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Phase diagrams of lyotropic mixtures, in terms of temperature and relative concentrations of the components, display a variety of stable structures and regions. This chapter begins with the use of ... More


The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

Mixtures of surfactant or amphiphilic molecules and solvents are known to display a large number of lyotropic mesophases. Although the physics of thermotropic liquid crystals has been vastly ... More


The Nematic And Cholesteric Phases

Antônio M. Figueiredo Neto and Silvio R. A. Salinas

in The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198525509
eISBN:
9780191711756
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525509.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter considers different nematic and cholesteric phases from the experimental and theoretical points of view. Besides the usual uniaxial nematic phases, lyotropic mixtures with more than two ... More


Solving the phase problem experimentally

Dennis Sherwood and Jon Cooper

in Crystals, X-rays and Proteins: Comprehensive Protein Crystallography

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199559046
eISBN:
9780191595028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559046.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter covers methods of structure solution which are used when molecular replacement is impossible, usually due to the lack of a suitable search model. These methods require that additional ... More


Cuprate superconductivity

A.J. Leggett

in Quantum Liquids: Bose condensation and Cooper pairing in condensed-matter systems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526438
eISBN:
9780191711954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526438.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Starting with an account of the chemical composition, crystalline structure, and phase diagram of the high-temperature (cuprate) superconductors, this chapter reviews the principal experimental ... More


The other phases of ice

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The water substance exhibits at least 13 crystalline phases. These are denoted by roman numerals such as ice II. Many are stable in particular regions of the pressure — temperature phase diagram ... More


Optimization

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell, and Edward H. Snell

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199213252
eISBN:
9780191707575
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213252.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

The ‘hits’ or ‘leads’ found during the screening stage that point to conditions that may be conducive to crystallization, need to be optimized in order to attain high quality crystals. This chapter ... More


Polydispersity and the paraffin chain—statement of the problem

DOUGLAS L. DORSET

in Crystallography of the Polymethylene Chain: An Inquiry into the Structure of Waxes

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529088
eISBN:
9780191712838
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529088.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This chapter introduces the problem of polydispersity for understanding properties of materials containing polymethylene chains. A model has been proposed for the assembly of molecular chains in a ... More


Charge transfer molecular compounds with delocalized π-π* interaction - introduction and general survey

Frank H. Herbstein

in Crystalline Molecular Complexes and Compounds: Structures and Principles

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198526605
eISBN:
9780191712142
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526605.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

About one hundred years elapsed between the preparation of the first crystalline charge transfer molecular compound with delocalized π-π* interaction (anthracene...picric acid) and the development of ... More


Reductionism, phenomena and models

Barry M. McCoy

in Advanced Statistical Mechanics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199556632
eISBN:
9780191723278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556632.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter explains the philosophy of reductionism and contrasts it with the philosophy used to study realistic complex systems. It presents examples of phase diagrams and magnetic phase ... More


Relaxor ferroelectrics

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Relaxors are site‐ and charge‐disordered crystals or solid solutions where charge disorder induces random fields. They are characterized by the appearance of polar nanoclusters that are much smaller ... More


High density expansions

Barry M. McCoy

in Advanced Statistical Mechanics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199556632
eISBN:
9780191723278
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556632.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter sketches the basic principles of molecular dynamics computations. It presents the results of high density computations for hard spheres and discs. It provides data for the freezing ... More


Lattice QCD at non-zero temperature and baryon density

Owe Philipsen

in Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing: Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 93, August 2009

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199691609
eISBN:
9780191731792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691609.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter gives an introduction to lattice QCD at finite temperature and baryon density. After a discussion of some fundamental aspects and difficulties of quantum field theory at finite ... More


Gauge Theory of Spin Glasses

Hidetoshi Nishimori

in Statistical Physics of Spin Glasses and Information Processing: An Introduction

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509417
eISBN:
9780191709081
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509417.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Studying how reliable the predictions of the mean-field theory are in realistic finite-dimensional systems presents an important problem. It is, in general, very difficult to investigate two- and ... More


Experimental procedure for neutron protein crystallography

Nobuo Niimura and Alberto Podjarny

in Neutron Protein Crystallography: Hydrogen, Protons, and Hydration in Bio-macromolecules

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199578863
eISBN:
9780191725555
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199578863.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography: Physics

This part focuses on the details of the experimental procedures of neutron protein crystallography (NPC). The technique of growing a large single crystal of protein is both indispensable for NPC and ... More


Quantum crystal

E. R. DOBBS

in Helium Three

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.003.0029
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses the properties of the quantum crystal. Topics covered include phase diagram, thermal properties, and solid 3He-4He mixtures.


Low-dimensional structures

E. R. DOBBS

in Helium Three

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198506409
eISBN:
9780191709463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506409.003.0035
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter begins with a discussion of the establishment of a phase diagram for a monolayer of 3He from heat capacity measurements. It then presents accounts of recent studies of the magnetic and ... More


Phase transitions and critical phenomena

Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz

in Elements of Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577224
eISBN:
9780191722943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

As an introduction to the physics of phase transitions and critical phenomena, this chapter explains a number of basic and fundamental ideas such as phases, phase transitions, phase diagrams, ... More


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