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 Science: Mathematics and Methodology

Peter Adamson

in Al-KindĪ

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195181425
eISBN:
9780199785087
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181425.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

This chapter is divided into three sections dealing with pharmacology, optics, and music, and emphasizes the issues of methodology, especially how al-Kindī thinks mathematics is used in science. In ... More


The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

C. J. Garland and J. A. Angus (eds)

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book provides an understanding of how events at the cellular level impact on the cardiovascular system as a whole. Advances in knowledge are highlighted and all the themes are presented from the ... More


Treating Attentional Impairments

Kim Cornish and John Wilding

in Attention, Genes, and Developmental Disorders

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195179941
eISBN:
9780199864652
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179941.003.010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Chapter 10 addresses the significant issue of treatment of attentional impairment through both stimulant medication and psychosocial intervention. A considerable literature exists examining the ... More


Molecular Pharmacology of the Dopamine Receptors

Michele L. Rankin, Lisa A. Hazelwood, R. Benjamin Free, Yoon Namkung, Elizabeth B. Rex, Rebecca A. Roof, and David R. Sibley

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

Dopamine receptors are rhodopsin-like seven-transmembrane receptors (also called G protein-coupled receptors) that mediate the central and peripheral actions of dopamine. Dopamine receptors are most ... More


Europe's Ancient Pharmacology

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0039
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter focuses on the interests that had prevented pharmaceutics from being consistently incorporated into the four humors doctrine in Greece and in the Roman era before Galen. Galen expanded ... More


Zhang Ji's Belated Honors

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0046
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

The Chinese government opened state apothecaries and published prescription books in the eleventh century. These were set up so that the educated patient could find his symptoms indexed in a table ... More


Chinese Pharmacology

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0047
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

The Chinese authors who created the new pharmacology starting in the eleventh and twelfth centuries were not narrow-minded physicians who focused solely on the human body's suffering and remained ... More


The Diagnosis Game

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0048
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

This chapter focuses on the importance of looking past the external symptoms of a sick person in order to diagnose the underlying disease. Each disease is different and a disease does not necessarily ... More


The Physician as the Pharmacist's Employee

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0049
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

Every apothecary in China has employed physicians, if the pharmacist is not active as a physician. The patients go directly to the apothecary so it is natural that physicians also locate themselves ... More


Homeopathy Is Not Medicine

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0072
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843) was from a poor family and had to translate English (and later French and Italian) medical and pharmaceutical texts to finance his studies. He uncovered a clue in British ... More


New Frontiers in Cognitive Aging

Roger Dixon, Lars Backman, and Lars-Goran Nilsson (eds)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198525691
eISBN:
9780191689369
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525691.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

With an ever increasing population of aging people in the western world, it is more crucial than ever that we try to understand how and why cognitive competence breaks down with advancing age; why do ... More


Action selection by biased attractor competition in the prefrontal cortex

Edmund T. Rolls

in Memory, Attention, and Decision-Making: A Unifying Computational Neuroscience Approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232703
eISBN:
9780191724046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232703.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses a hierarchical attractor model of action selection. It details pharmacology of attention, decision-making, and action selection. It describes the application to a ... More


Good News: Child Victimization Has Been Declining—But Why?

David Finkelhor

in Childhood Victimization: Violence, Crime, and Abuse in the Lives of Young People

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195342857
eISBN:
9780199863631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342857.003.0007
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Crime and Justice

Various forms of child maltreatment and child victimization have declined as much as thirty to sixty percent from 1993 until 2006, including sexual abuse, physical abuse, sexual assault, homicide, ... More


History and Epidemiology

Wendy Haight, Teresa Ostler, James Black, and Linda Kingery

in Helping Children of Rural, Methamphetamine-Involved Families: The Case of Rural Illinois

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195326055
eISBN:
9780199864461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326055.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families, Communities and Organizations

This chapter provides an introductory discussion of the history and epidemiology of methamphetamine. Despite intense publicity in the popular press in the 1990s and early 2000s, methamphetamine is ... More


Pharmacology of tobacco addiction

Jack E. Henningfield and Neal L. Benowitz

in Tobacco: Science, policy and public health

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199566655
eISBN:
9780191594410
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566655.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the mechanisms underlying dependence on tobacco and nicotine. Topics covered include the pharmacology of nicotine, dose-related effects, nicotine toxicology, a comparison of ... More


Arabian Drugs in Early Medieval Mediterranean Medicine

Zohar Amar and Efraim Lev

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780748697816
eISBN:
9781474430418
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748697816.001.0001
Subject:
History, Middle East History

For more than one thousand years Arab medicine held sway in the ancient world, from the shores of Spain in the West to China, India and Sri Lanka (Ceylon) in the East. This book explores the impact ... More


Ampa Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Glutamate mediates most of the excitatory transmission in the brain, and AMPA receptors are the primary synaptic receptors for the fast excitatory transmission. The receptors were named after the ... More


Kainate Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Both kainate receptors and AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are associated primarily with voltage-independent channels that gate a depolarizing current mainly carried ... More


Nmda Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Ionotropic glutamate receptors, including NMDA receptors, mediate most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. When NMDA receptors are activated by membrane ... More


Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a distinct family of excitatory amino acid receptors. Unlike the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), which constitute cation-specific ion channels ... More


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