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France: Never a Golden Age

Andrew Knapp

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

General Charles de Gaulle, founder of the Fifth French Republic in 1958, was a bitter opponent of the unchecked power of political parties, for which he blamed the failure of earlier Republics, but ... More


Parties at the European Level

Simon Hix

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the 1970s, academic interest in ‘parties at the European level’ has gone full circle. The story began in the 1970s, in the wake of the decision to hold direct elections to the European ... More


Party Decline in the Parties State? The Changing Environment of German Politics

Susan E. Scarrow

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The 1949 (West) German Basic Law established a system of party‐based democracy that has now endured for more than half a century, yet today's political system is not identical to that of earlier ... More


Spain: Building a Parties State in a New Democracy

Ian Holliday

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Spain has made a number of experiments with democracy, but only since the mid‐1970s has this been successful. At that time, strenuous efforts were made to ensure that political parties would come ... More


Parties and Society in New Zealand

Jack Vowles

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The first introductory section discusses the evolution of the current party system in New Zealand, from a system dominated by the two parties around which it had aligned in the 1930s, to the ... More


Political Parties in Australia: Party Stability in a Utilitarian Society

Ian McAllister

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0013
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Placed in a comparative perspective, the hallmark of Australian politics is the dominance of party: the vast majority of voters identify with and vote for one of the major political parties, and ... More


Party Politics in Ireland: Regularizing a Volatile System

R. J. Murphy and David M. Farrell

in Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240562
eISBN:
9780191600296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240566.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Until as recently as the mid‐1970s, Irish party politics had an unchanging nature and was characterized as a two‐and‐a‐half party system (Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael, and the smaller Labour Party) ... More


Responsiveness

Reuven Y. Hazan and Gideon Rahat

in Democracy within Parties: Candidate Selection Methods and Their Political Consequences

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199572540
eISBN:
9780191723070
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572540.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter addresses each of the four main dimensions of candidate selection (candidacy, selectorate, decentralization, and voting/appointment) according to its impact on different aspects of ... More


Finland: From Political Amateurs to Political Class

Ilkka Ruostetsaari

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

In historical perspective, the history of Finland's political class is one of gradual growth. Parliamentary salaries and public party financing were established before 1967, thus laying the ... More


Denmark: Professionalism in an Egalitarian Political Culture

Torben K. Jensen

in The Political Class in Advanced Democracies: A Comparative Handbook

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780199260362
eISBN:
9780191601873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199260362.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Denmark's egalitarian political culture stresses the values of participation, equality, and a strong civil society – traits that may be detrimental to the development of a class of professional ... More


The National Union and the Central Office: Representation and Organization

Stuart Ball

in Portrait of a Party: The Conservative Party in Britain 1918-1945

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199667987
eISBN:
9780191751356
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199667987.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History, Political History

The fourth chapter begins with a discussion of the regional level of the party organisation. It then examines the national organisation, which consists of the voluntary and representative institution ... More


Party Resources at the Dawn of the New Millennium

Piero Ignazi

in Party and Democracy: The Uneven Road to Party Legitimacy

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198735854
eISBN:
9780191799815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198735854.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Chapter 6 deals with the resources parties enjoy at the present time, and examines how such resources impact on the parties’ internal dynamics and on the relationship with the mass public. The ... More


The financial health of local parties: the key to electoral success?

Ron Johnston and Charles Pattie

in Money and electoral politics: Local parties and funding at general elections

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447306320
eISBN:
9781447311874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447306320.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

To sustain their campaign (and other) activities, especially in marginal seats, political parties must raise and spend money. But how well-resourced are local parties? New rules on financial ... More


Does Increased Litigation Increase Justice in a Second-Best World?

Jeremy Kidd and Todd J. Zywicki

in The American Illness: Essays on the Rule of Law

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300175219
eISBN:
9780300195071
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300175219.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter discusses the theory of the second best, which urges caution in deciding questions of increased access to the courts. It presents the reasons why procedural rules that increase ... More


Confidence, 1959–1971

Justin Collings

in Democracy's Guardians: A History of the German Federal Constitutional Court, 1951–2001

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198753377
eISBN:
9780191815003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198753377.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Philosophy of Law

Chapter 2 highlights the Court’s early contributions to the democratization and liberalization of West German society and politics. The chapter’s key case is the 1961 Television judgment, in which ... More


Money Matters: Local Campaigns at British General Elections

Ron Johnston and Charles Pattie

in Money and electoral politics: Local parties and funding at general elections

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447306320
eISBN:
9781447311874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447306320.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

The legal rules surrounding constituency campaigns in the UK set very tight limits on candidates’ permitted campaign expenditures. Even so, most major party candidates spend far less than their ... More


Raising the Money: Donations to Local Parties

Ron Johnston and Charles Pattie

in Money and electoral politics: Local parties and funding at general elections

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447306320
eISBN:
9781447311874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447306320.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Donations are a major source of income for local parties, but the details of who makes these donations remain opaque. The chapter examines local party accounts (where these are available) and ... More


Assessing the Strength of Party Organizational Resources: A Survey of the Evidence from the Political Party Database

Paul D. Webb and Dan Keith

in Organizing Political Parties: Representation, Participation, and Power

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
July 2017
ISBN:
9780198758631
eISBN:
9780191818554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198758631.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter provides a survey of four types of party organizational resources in the PPDB: members, money, staff, and territorial units. Findings include that around 3 per cent of voters now join ... More


Introduction

Ron Johnston and Charles Pattie

in Money and electoral politics: Local parties and funding at general elections

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9781447306320
eISBN:
9781447311874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781447306320.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Public Policy

Grassroots campaigning is an integral part of modern electioneering and is increasingly integrated into national party strategies. A considerable body of research has built up over the years ... More


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