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Introduction: The Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley H. Faeth

in Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195308082
eISBN:
9780199867462
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Symbiotic associations between plants and fungi are very common in ecological communities. In grasses, the hyphae of endophytic fungi (Family Clavicipitaceae; Tribe Balansiae) can be found growing ... More


Reproduction by the Semichaste: Gynogenesis, Hybridogenesis, and Kleptogenesis

John C. Avise

in Clonality: The Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution of Sexual Abstinence in Vertebrate Animals

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195369670
eISBN:
9780199871063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195369670.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Three natural quasi-asexual or quasi-sexual genetic modes (hybridogenesis, hybridogenesis, and kleptogenesis) can be described as parthenogenetic-like processes with added dashes of sex. Females in ... More


PLANT FEATURES

Ernest H. Williams

in The Nature Handbook: A Guide to Observing the Great Outdoors

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179293
eISBN:
9780199790470
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179293.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

The diversity in size, shape, and growth requirements of different plants produces an astonishing array of features to see — from hairs, thorns, and waxes to tilting responses towards sunlight ... More


Linking ecosystem and parasite ecology

Michel Loreau, Jacques Roy, and David Tilman

in Parasitism and Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529873
eISBN:
9780191712777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529873.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Community ecology and ecosystem ecology provide different perspectives on ecological systems, and have followed increasingly divergent pathways for decades. Recent theoretical and experimental work ... More


Marriage Traps: Colonial Interactions with Indigenous Marriage Ties in East Timor

RICARDO ROQUE

in Racism and Ethnic Relations in the Portuguese-Speaking World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197265246
eISBN:
9780191754197
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265246.003.0011
Subject:
History, Imperialism and Colonialism

This chapter explores Portuguese colonial relations with Timorese marriage institutions during the late colonial period. By drawing on the rich colonial history of the barlake (traditional marriage ... More


General body organization

A. Schmidt-Rhaesa

in The Evolution of Organ Systems

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198566687
eISBN:
9780191718007
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566687.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter deals with a number of topics not related to particular organ systems, but to the general body organization. These include: complexity (is there a constantly growing complexity during ... More


The Evolution of Exotic Birds

Tim M. Blackburn, Julie L. Lockwood, and Phillip Cassey

in Avian Invasions: The Ecology and Evolution of Exotic Birds

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199232543
eISBN:
9780191715983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232543.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter considers patterns of evolution in exotic bird populations. Evidence is presented that exotic birds have evolved in their phenotypes over the relatively short time spans in which they ... More


Species interactions

Bryan Shorrocks

in The Biology of African Savannahs

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570660
eISBN:
9780191717680
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570660.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter starts by examining a simple classification of interaction between just two species into +, 0, or -. This produces a 3x3 matrix which reduces to six possible interactions. Only three ... More


Abuse of Rights, Abuse of People

Gijs van Donselaar

in The Right to Exploit: Parasitism, Scarcity, and Basic Income

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195140392
eISBN:
9780199871483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195140392.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter begins with a description of the case of Mr. Pickles, who in 1895 was allowed by the Judges of the House of Lords to get away with a vicious trick he had played on the community of ... More


Questions, terminology, and underlying principles

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter begins by laying out the purpose of this book, which is to examine the links between parasitism and primate behaviour, ecology and evolution. A question central to this book is ‘what ... More


Diversity and characteristics of primate parasites

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the biological features of major groups of parasites and links these features to specific aspects of disease risk in primates. It identifies the parasite characteristics that are ... More


Host–parasite dynamics and epidemiological principles

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter links host and parasite ecology by considering basic epidemiological parameters and processes, and it covers how disease patterns scale up from individuals to populations and ... More


Host defenses: the immune system and behavioral counterstrategies

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines the host's response to parasitism by considering behavioural and immunological defences to infectious disease. It focuses on the individual level by considering how primate ... More


Infectious disease and primate social systems

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter integrates material from the previous chapters in order to explore the ways in which parasites might influence primate mating and social systems. It considers how individual responses to ... More


Parasites and primate conservation

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter investigates the role of infectious diseases in primate conservation. It focuses on two issues central to the conservation of primates: anthropogenic effects on disease risk in wild ... More


Concluding remarks and future directions

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter reviews key points in the book and identifies areas for future research, pointing to future challenges for testing the links between host and parasite traits in wild primate systems. ... More


The Market: Freedom from Morality

David Gauthier

in Morals by Agreement

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249924
eISBN:
9780191597497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198249926.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Economics celebrates an ideal of interaction free from all constraint, an ideal found in the perfectly competitive market, where equilibrium and optimality coincide. Morality can then be thought of ... More


Diseases and Parasites

Dale F. Lott

in American Bison: A Natural History

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520233386
eISBN:
9780520930742
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520233386.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Natural History and Field Guides

Predators aren't the only exploiters of bison. Like all big organisms they are a resource for hundreds of kinds of tiny life forms that use them in a variety of intriguing ways. And size is no ... More


Dynamics of infectious disease

Bryan Grenfell and Matthew Keeling

in Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199209989
eISBN:
9780191917370
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199209989.003.0013
Subject:
Environmental Science, Applied Ecology

Host–pathogen associations continue to generate some of the most important applied problems in population biology. In addition, as foreshadowed in Chapter 5 of this ... More


Evolutionary Relationships

Theodore W. Pietsch

in Oceanic Anglerfishes: Extraordinary Diversity in the Deep Sea

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255425
eISBN:
9780520942554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255425.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

Under the extreme selective pressures imposed by meso- and bathypelagic environments, a vast array of bizarre and wonderful creatures has evolved, displaying behaviors and associated morphological ... More


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