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Urban Environments as a Framework to Study Parallel Evolution

James S. Santangelo, Lindsay S. Miles, Sophie T. Breitbart, David Murray-Stoker, L. Ruth Rivkin, Marc T. J. Johnson, and Rob W. Ness

in Urban Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780198836841
eISBN:
9780191873843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198836841.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Urban environments represent globally replicated, large-scale disturbances to the landscape, providing an ideal opportunity to study parallel evolution in natural populations on a large scale. In ... More


Introduction: The Brain, Home of the Gods

E. Fuller Torrey

in Evolving Brains, Emerging Gods: Early Humans and the Origins of Religion

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780231183369
eISBN:
9780231544863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231183369.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Neurobiology

This chapter describes Charles Darwin’s theory as it related to brain evolution and gods. It then provides basic information about human brains and the nature of the research evidence used for this ... More


What Is Convergent Evolution?

George R. McGhee

in Convergent Evolution: Limited Forms Most Beautiful

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016421
eISBN:
9780262298872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016421.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter introduces the concept of convergent evolution. It shows that parallel evolution is simply a special case of convergent evolution, and addresses the action of both functional and ... More


Darwin’s molecule: Evolutionary insights into mechanisms of biochemical adaptation and protein evolution

Jay F. Storz

in Hemoglobin: Insights into protein structure, function, and evolution

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
December 2018
ISBN:
9780198810681
eISBN:
9780191847929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198810681.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 9 discusses conceptual issues in protein evolution and provides a synthesis of lessons learned from studies of hemoglobin function. Using hemoglobin as a model molecule, we can exploit an ... More


Climbing Mount Probable

Arlin Stoltzfus

in Mutation, Randomness, and Evolution

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
May 2021
ISBN:
9780198844457
eISBN:
9780191880063
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198844457.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Chapter 8 provides the formal basis to recognize biases in the introduction of variation as a cause of evolutionary biases. The shifting-gene-frequencies theory of the Modern Synthesis posits a ... More


Urban Evolutionary Biology

Marta Szulkin, Jason Munshi-South, and Anne Charmantier (eds)

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780198836841
eISBN:
9780191873843
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198836841.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Cities occupy about 3 per cent of the Earth’s habitable land area and are home to one out of two humans worldwide; both estimates are predicted to grow. Urban space is thus becoming an important, ... More


Homology

Mary Jane West-Eberhard

in Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195122343
eISBN:
9780197561300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195122343.003.0033
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Palaeontology: Earth Sciences

Homology—similarity due to common descent—is the cornerstone of comparative evolutionary research. Wake (1994) calls it “the central concept for all of ... More


How to Quantify Urbanization When Testing for Urban Evolution?

Marta Szulkin, Colin J. Garroway, Michela Corsini, Andrzej Z. Kotarba, and Davide Dominoni

in Urban Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
June 2020
ISBN:
9780198836841
eISBN:
9780191873843
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198836841.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Research in urban evolution requires that the features of cities are accurately captured for input into evolutionary models. Until recently, the evolutionary effects of cities have often been ... More


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