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Enhancing Flower Colour

Beverley J. Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering: An integrated approach

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198565970
eISBN:
9780191714009
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565970.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The production of coloured tissues, particularly insect-attracting petals, depends upon the synthesis of pigments. Plants are able to mix, modify and enhance pigments to produce a vast array of final ... More


The Scandium Group

George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195393354
eISBN:
9780197562772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0014
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

The members of the Sc Group are Sc scandium, Y yttrium, La lanthanum, Ce cerium, Pr praseodymium, Nd neodymium, Pm promethium, Sm samarium, Eu europium, Gd gadolinium, ... More


The Actinoid Metals

George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195393354
eISBN:
9780197562772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0020
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

The elements making up the Actinoid Metals are those with atomic numbers from 89 through 103: Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, and Lr. The name ... More


The soil environment

Richard D. Bardgett

in The Biology of Soil: A community and ecosystem approach

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198525035
eISBN:
9780191728181
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525035.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Soil forms a thin mantle over the Earth's surface and acts as the interface between the atmosphere and lithosphere, the outermost shell of the Earth. It is a multiphase system, consisting of mineral ... More


Redox Systems

Greg M. Anderson and David A. Crerar

in Thermodynamics in Geochemistry: The Equilibrium Model

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195064643
eISBN:
9780197560198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195064643.003.0022
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Up until this point we have dealt with familiar intensive variables such as temperature, pressure, density, and molar thermodynamic properties (molar ... More


The Construction of E–pH Diagrams

George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195393354
eISBN:
9780197562772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0004
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

In order to construct an E–pH diagram one needs to follow eight basic steps: (1) Select the species of the element involved which contain one or more of the following ... More


Precipitation and Complexation

George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195393354
eISBN:
9780197562772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0006
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

In Chapter 2, a method for the construction of single-element E–pH diagrams has been presented. No agent which could produce an insoluble compound nor any agent which ... More


The Carbon Group

George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

in The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195393354
eISBN:
9780197562772
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0010
Subject:
Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry

The elements which constitute the Carbon Group of the Periodic Table are carbon C, silicon Si, germanium Ge, tin Sn, and lead Pb. All five of the elements have atoms ... More


Water and Metal Cations in Solution

Jean-Pierre Jolivet

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190928117
eISBN:
9780197559932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928117.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Water has an exceptional ability to dissolve minerals. It is safe and chemically stable, and it remains liquid over a wide temperature range. Thus, it is the best ... More


Condensation in Solution: Polycations and Polyanions

Jean-Pierre Jolivet

in Metal Oxide Nanostructures Chemistry: Synthesis from Aqueous Solutions

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190928117
eISBN:
9780197559932
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190928117.003.0006
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Condensation of metal complexes in solution forms entities in which the cations are linked by hydroxo (HO−) or oxo (O2−) bridges. The reaction is initiated by the ... More


Minerals in Human Blood Vessels and Their Dissolution in Vitro

Maciej Pawlikowski

in Geology and Health: Closing the Gap

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195162042
eISBN:
9780197562062
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195162042.003.0033
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

Cardiovascular disease knows no ethnic, national, or geographic boundaries. Men and women throughout the world can become affected by the obstruction of ... More


Electrostatic Adsorption of Anions

G. L. Ji

in Chemistry of Variable Charge Soils

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195097450
eISBN:
9780197560846
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195097450.003.0007
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Soil Science

Electrostatic adsorption of anions is one of the important characteristics of variable charge soils. This is caused by the fundamental feature that these soils carry a ... More


Geochemical Kinetics

Craig M. Bethke

in Geochemical Reaction Modeling: Concepts and Applications

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195094756
eISBN:
9780197560778
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195094756.003.0018
Subject:
Earth Sciences and Geography, Geochemistry

To this point we have measured reaction progress parametrically in terms of the reaction progress variable ξ, which is dimensionless. When in Chapter 11 we reacted ... More


Ecosystem processes

Lawrence R. Walker

in The Biology of Disturbed Habitats

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199575299
eISBN:
9780191774836
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199575299.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Disturbances disrupt ecosystem processes, thereby affecting the distribution and abundance of biota. Disturbances alter light and temperature regimes, carbon dioxide and nutrient fluxes, and ... More


Determination of Dissociation Constants

Brian G. Cox

in Acids and Bases: Solvent Effects on Acid-Base Strength

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199670512
eISBN:
9780199670512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199670512.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The determination of dissociation constants in non-aqueous and mixed-aqueous solvents is described. pH-scales, upon which the dissociation constants are based, are defined and compared with the ... More


The Abiotic Frame and Adaptations to Cope with Abiotic Constraints

Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson

in The Biology of Lakes and Ponds

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198713593
eISBN:
9780191781902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198713593.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter draws up the abiotic frame for organisms set by the physical and chemical properties of a specific ecosystem. The abiotic frame is a combination of several features, including wind, ... More


Commensals of Nepenthes pitchers

Leonora S. Bittleston

in Carnivorous Plants: Physiology, ecology, and evolution

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
February 2018
ISBN:
9780198779841
eISBN:
9780191825873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198779841.003.0023
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

Carnivorous Nepenthes pitcher plants contain aquatic ecosystems within each fluid-filled pitcher. Communities of arthropods and microbes colonize pitcher pools, and some organisms are endemic to the ... More


The ecological consequences of marine hypoxia: from behavioural to ecosystem responses

Bettina Riedel, Robert Diaz, Rutger Rosenberg, and Michael Stachowitsch

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

This chapter summarizes the far-reaching consequences and ecological implications of hypoxia and anoxia (low/no oxygen), which have become a global key stressor to marine ecosystems, with over 500 ... More


Chemical Determinands of Freshwater Ecosystem Functioning

Nic Pacini, Libor Pechar, and David M. Harper

in Freshwater Ecology and Conservation: Approaches and Techniques

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
February 2019
ISBN:
9780198766384
eISBN:
9780191820908
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198766384.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Chemical equilibria in surface waters stem from complex interactions between physical background and living components of ecosystems. Catchments differ in geological background, climate, and land ... More


Enhancing flower colour

Beverley Glover

in Understanding Flowers and Flowering, Second Edition

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199661596
eISBN:
9780191779473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199661596.003.0017
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Ecology

The production of coloured tissues, particularly insect-attracting petals, depends upon the synthesis of pigments. However, very few flowers are coloured simply by the synthesis of one single ... More


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