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Modeling Ecological Niches

A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Richard G. Pearson, Robert P. Anderson, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Miguel Nakamura, and Miguel Bastos Araújo

in Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions (MPB-49)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136868
eISBN:
9781400840670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136868.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explains how environmental data can be used to create models that characterize species’ ecological niches in environmental space. It introduces a model, which is a function constructed ... More


Evaluating Model Performance and Significance

A. Townsend Peterson, Jorge Soberón, Richard G. Pearson, Robert P. Anderson, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Miguel Nakamura, and Miguel Bastos Araújo

in Ecological Niches and Geographic Distributions (MPB-49)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691136868
eISBN:
9781400840670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691136868.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter describes a framework for selecting appropriate strategies for evaluating model performance and significance. It begins with a review of key concepts, focusing on how primary occurrence ... More


SHADOWS ON THE WALL

Lev Ginzburg and Mark Colyvan

in Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168167
eISBN:
9780199790159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168167.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

It can be very difficult to decide between two competing theories. It is rarely a straightforward matter of appealing to evidence. Sometimes neither theory conforms perfectly with the evidence, and ... More


Conclusion: Semantics, Heuristics, Pragmatics

Timothy Williamson

in Suppose and Tell: The Semantics and Heuristics of Conditionals

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
August 2020
ISBN:
9780198860662
eISBN:
9780191893391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198860662.003.0016
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This brief chapter draws some methodological morals from the preceding arguments. Semantics must beware of what scientists call overfitting the data, complicating the theory to fit data which may be ... More


Feed Forward Neural Networks

Lionel Raff, Ranga Komanduri, Martin Hagan, and Satish Bukkapatnam

in Neural Networks in Chemical Reaction Dynamics

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199765652
eISBN:
9780197563113
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199765652.003.0007
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

In this section, we want to give a brief introduction to neural networks (NNs). It is written for readers who are not familiar with neural networks but are curious ... More


Bayesian Basics and the Scientific Hypothesis

Bradley E. Alger

in Defense of the Scientific Hypothesis: From Reproducibility Crisis to Big Data

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
February 2021
ISBN:
9780190881481
eISBN:
9780190093761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190881481.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

This chapter covers the basics of Bayesian statistics, emphasizing the conceptual framework for Bayes’ Theorem. It works through several iterations of the theorem to demonstrate how the same equation ... More


Artificial Intelligence and Behavioral Economics

Colin F. Camerer

in The Economics of Artificial Intelligence: An Agenda

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
January 2020
ISBN:
9780226613338
eISBN:
9780226613475
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226613475.003.0024
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

An important strand of judgment and decision research in the 1970s and 1980s, which influenced behavioral economics mostly indirectly, documented the fact that simple statistical models often predict ... More


Metric-Based Approaches for Semi-Supervised Regression and Classification

Schuurmans Dale, Southey Finnegan, Wilkinson Dana, and Guo Yuhong

in Semi-Supervised Learning

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262033589
eISBN:
9780262255899
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262033589.003.0023
Subject:
Computer Science, Machine Learning

This chapter discusses the explicit relationship that must be asserted between labeled and unlabeled data, which is a requirement of semi-supervised learning methods. Semi-supervised model selection ... More


It Must Be Beautiful

Roger Arditi and Lev R. Ginzburg

in How Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic Ecology

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199913831
eISBN:
9780190267902
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199913831.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter explains the role of ratio-dependence as an invariance in ecology. It analyzes the importance of using scaling invariance in mathematics and proposes that all models of interacting ... More


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