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Institutional Ethnography

Jeffrey Longhofer, Jerry Floersch, and Janet Hoy

in Qualitative Methods for Practice Research

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195398472
eISBN:
9780199979325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398472.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Institutional ethnography (IE) is summarized as a qualitative research method that is well suited to explore phenomenological practice gaps (PPGs), such as the implementation of a social policy ... More


Measurement and Analysis

Lorene M. Nelson, Caroline M. Tanner, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, and Valerie M. McGuire

in Neuroepidemiology: From principles to practice

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195133790
eISBN:
9780199863730
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133790.003.03
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter focuses on measurement of exposures, risk factors, prognostic factors, in addition to statistical analysis methods for assessing the association of those factors with disease outcomes. ... More


Getting the outcome measure right

Richard F. Heller

in Evidence for Population Health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529743
eISBN:
9780191723919
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529743.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers the individual and the population approaches to assessing health outcomes. Death, hospitalization, quality of life, cost, disability, inequality, and health literacy are ... More


Evaluating according to purpose and resources: strengthening the evidence base incrementally

Yolande Coombes

in Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and Methods

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199569298
eISBN:
9780191594427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199569298.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter assesses the appropriateness of measurement in terms of outcome and impact. It considers the level at which outcome measurement should take place and the methods that can be used to ... More


Essential design features of a controlled clinical trial

Curtis L. Meinert and Susan Tonascia

in Clinical Trials: Design, Conduct and Analysis

Published in print:
1986
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195035681
eISBN:
9780199864478
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195035681.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the general principles underlying selection of study treatment, the choice of the outcome measure, and the roles of randomization and masking in data collection.


Measuring Effectiveness

Jacob Stegenga

in Medical Nihilism

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198747048
eISBN:
9780191809170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747048.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

There are three methodological challenges to measuring the effectiveness of medical interventions: the choice of good measuring instruments, the use of appropriate analytic measures, and the use of a ... More


Approaches to Measuring the Impact of Music Therapy and Music Activities on People Living With Dementia

Becky Dowson and Orii McDermott

in Music and Dementia: From Cognition to Therapy

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
April 2020
ISBN:
9780190075934
eISBN:
9780190095253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190075934.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter provides an introduction to the evaluation of music activities and music therapy for people with dementia. We outline some of the main challenges and considerations involved in choosing ... More


Inductive Risk and Values in Composite Outcome Measures

Roger Stanev

in Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780190467715
eISBN:
9780190467753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190467715.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Composite outcomes are becoming widespread in clinical trials. By combining individual outcome measures (e.g., death, non-fatal heart attack, non-fatal stroke, re-hospitalization) as a single ... More


Symptoms and trajectories experienced by older people approaching and at the end of life: implications for care

Liesbeth Van Vliet, Bárbara Antunes, and Irene J Higginson

in Palliative care for older people: A public health perspective

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
June 2015
ISBN:
9780198717614
eISBN:
9780191787133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717614.003.0012
Subject:
Palliative Care, Palliative Medicine and Older People

This chapter focuses on older patients’(i) symptoms and end-of-life trajectories, (ii) barriers in accessing palliative care, and (iii) the importance of measurement to achieve high-quality care. ... More


On the Use of Virtual Reality as an Outcome Measure in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation

Diana Jovanovski and Konstantine K. Zakzanis

in The Role of Technology in Clinical Neuropsychology

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780190234737
eISBN:
9780197559543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190234737.003.0009
Subject:
Computer Science, Virtual Reality

Despite the prevalence of executive dysfunction across multiple neurological and psychiatric conditions, there have been few validated rehabilitative interventions targeting it. One intervention ... More


Malleability of Meta-Analysis

Jacob Stegenga

in Medical Nihilism

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
April 2018
ISBN:
9780198747048
eISBN:
9780191809170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747048.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

An astonishing volume and diversity of evidence is available for many hypotheses in medicine. Some of this evidence—usually from randomized trials—is amalgamated by meta-analysis. Despite the ongoing ... More


Quality: Are We Up to Scratch?

Julie Sin

in Commissioning and a Population Approach to Health Services Decision-Making

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
January 2021
ISBN:
9780198840732
eISBN:
9780191876400
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198840732.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter looks at the topic of health services quality from a commissioning and whole population perspective. Quality is noted to be a multidimensional concept and dimensions of quality are ... More


Extending Curriculum-Based Measurement to Assess Performance of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

Teri Wallace and Renáta Tichá

in A Measure of Success: The Influence of Curriculum-Based Measurement on Education

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816679706
eISBN:
9781452947631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816679706.003.0018
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This chapter describes the challenges to teaching and assessing students with significant cognitive disabilities as well as including them in state standards accountability. Student with significant ... More


The Contribution of Curriculum-Based Measurement to Response to Intervention: Research, Policy, and School Practice

Kim Gibbons and Ann Casey

in A Measure of Success: The Influence of Curriculum-Based Measurement on Education

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780816679706
eISBN:
9781452947631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Minnesota Press
DOI:
10.5749/minnesota/9780816679706.003.0008
Subject:
Education, Educational Policy and Politics

This chapter highlights the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) data throughout school-based organizational structures to support teachers and administrators in instructional decision making ... More


Causal Strength

Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann

in Bayesian Philosophy of Science

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
October 2019
ISBN:
9780199672110
eISBN:
9780191881671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199672110.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

The question “When is C a cause of E?” is well-studied in philosophy—much more than the equally important issue of quantifying the causal strength between C and E. In this chapter, we transfer ... More


Aiming for Excellence

Michael Tansey

in Intelligent Drug Development: Trials and Errors in Clinical Research

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780199974580
eISBN:
9780197563335
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199974580.003.0005
Subject:
Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry

Clinical trial processes are what we repeatedly do in clinical research, but, unfortunately, the habit of excellence is not as prevalent as it might be. Processes are only as good as the ways in ... More


Signals

Robin Hanson

in The Age of Em: Work, Love, and Life when Robots Rule the Earth

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198754626
eISBN:
9780191917028
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198754626.003.0033
Subject:
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning

Today, we make many choices with an eye to how those choices influence how others see us. For example, we try to give others a favorable impression of our general capacities, such as wealth, ... More


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