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Patterns in gravity-driven granular flows

Igor S. Aranson and Lev S. Tsimring

in Granular Patterns

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199534418
eISBN:
9780191714665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534418.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter provides an overview of mechanisms and theoretical models of pattern formation in dense gravity-driven granular flows. A wide range of phenomena, from one- and two-dimensional avalanches ... More


Theory of Fluctuations in Superconductors

Anatoly Larkin (late) and Andrei Varlamov

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198528159
eISBN:
9780191713521
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528159.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book presents itself as both an encyclopedia and a textbook of fluctuation phenomena in superconductors. The first half presents the phenomenological methods of the Ginzburg-Landau theory and ... More


BEC: Its definition, origin, occurrence, and consequences

A.J. Leggett

in Quantum Liquids: Bose condensation and Cooper pairing in condensed-matter systems

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526438
eISBN:
9780191711954
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526438.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter contains a general discussion of the phenomenon of BEC, under conditions much broader than those realized in the equilibrium noninteracting system introduced in Chapter 1. A definition ... More


Order, Symmetry, and the Organization of Matter

Daniel L. Stein and Charles M. Newman

in Spin Glasses and Complexity

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691147338
eISBN:
9781400845637
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691147338.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Science, Technology and Environment

This chapter introduces the basic concepts and language that will be needed later on: order, symmetry, invariance, broken symmetry, Hamiltonian, condensed matter, order parameter, ground state, and ... More


Statistical field theory

Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz

in Elements of Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577224
eISBN:
9780191722943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Statistical-mechanical systems often involve discrete elementary degrees of freedom such as spins in the Ising model. Field theories, on the other hand, have continuous fields, defined over the whole ... More


Interacting boson systems

Xiao-Gang Wen

in Quantum Field Theory of Many-Body Systems: From the Origin of Sound to an Origin of Light and Electrons

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199227259
eISBN:
9780191713019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227259.003.03
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces a quantum field theory for interacting boson systems. It develops a mean-field theory to study the superfluid phase. A path integral formulation is then developed to re-derive ... More


Phase transitions and critical phenomena

Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz

in Elements of Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577224
eISBN:
9780191722943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

As an introduction to the physics of phase transitions and critical phenomena, this chapter explains a number of basic and fundamental ideas such as phases, phase transitions, phase diagrams, ... More


Dipolar glasses

Robert Blinc

in Advanced Ferroelectricity

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199570942
eISBN:
9780191728631
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570942.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The physics of dipolar glasses is briefly discussed. It is shown that the local dipolar structure can be characterized by a local polarization distribution function and not by the homogeneous ... More


Mean‐field theories

Hidetoshi Nishimori and Gerardo Ortiz

in Elements of Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577224
eISBN:
9780191722943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577224.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

The present chapter explains the mean-field approximation, the Landau theory, the infinite-range model, and the Bethe approximation, and shows that all these (mean-field) theories are essentially ... More


The Bcs Model

Nikolai B. Kopnin

in Theory of Nonequilibrium Superconductivity

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198507888
eISBN:
9780191709722
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507888.003.03
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter applies the Green function formalism to the BCS theory of superconductivity — the Gor'kov equations are derived which make the basis for the further analysis. The Green functions are ... More


Order parameters, broken symmetry, and topology

James P. Sethna

in Statistical Mechanics: Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity: Second Edition

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198865247
eISBN:
9780191897610
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865247.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter introduces order parameters -- the reduction of a complex system of interacting particles into a few fields that describe the local equilibrium behavior at each point in the system. It ... More


Liquid crystals

Masao Doi

in Soft Matter Physics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199652952
eISBN:
9780191774942
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199652952.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Liquid crystal is a state of matter which has an intermediate order between liquids and crystals. While fluid in nature, the materials in liquid crystals posses an order in molecular orientation. As ... More


Spin glasses

Marc Mézard and Andrea Montanari

in Information, Physics, and Computation

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570837
eISBN:
9780191718755
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570837.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter describes random magnetic systems, ‘spin glasses’, by special random ensembles of factor graphs. It also studies the glass phase, characterized by a freezing of the spins, in the ... More


Critical Phenomena: General Considerations

JEAN ZINN-JUSTIN

in Quantum Field Theory and Critical Phenomena

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198509233
eISBN:
9780191708732
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509233.003.0023
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter reviews a few properties, from the point of view of phase transitions, of simple ferromagnetic lattice models. In systems with finite range interactions a transfer matrix can be defined. ... More


Statistical Mechanics: Entropy, Order Parameters, and Complexity: Second Edition

James P. Sethna

Published in print:
2021
Published Online:
April 2021
ISBN:
9780198865247
eISBN:
9780191897610
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198865247.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This text distills the core ideas of statistical mechanics to make room for new advances important to information theory, complexity, active matter, and dynamical systems. Chapters address random ... More


Coherent quasielastic neutron scattering

Rolf Hempelmann

in Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Solid State Diffusion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198517436
eISBN:
9780191706974
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198517436.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

QENS on diffusing atoms with a sizable coherent neutron scattering cross section yields information on interference effects and correlated motion contained in the coherent scattering function S(Q, ... More


Rheology of Liquid-Crystalline Polymers

Chang Dae Han

in Rheology and Processing of Polymeric Materials: Volume 1: Polymer Rheology

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780195187823
eISBN:
9780197562352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780195187823.003.0015
Subject:
Chemistry, Physical Chemistry

Liquid crystals (LCs) may be divided into two subgroups: (1) lyotropic LCs, formed by mixing rigid rodlike molecules with a solvent, and (2) thermotropic LCs, formed by heating. One finds in the ... More


Conformal Symmetry in Statistical Mechanics

Hans-Peter Eckle

in Models of Quantum Matter: A First Course on Integrability and the Bethe Ansatz

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
September 2019
ISBN:
9780199678839
eISBN:
9780191878589
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199678839.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The core of the exposition of the theory of conformal symmetry in statistical mechanics are the concepts of correlation functions of order parameter fields, whose behaviour under conformal ... More


Phase Transitions

Jochen Rau

in Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics: An Introduction to Key Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2017
ISBN:
9780199595068
eISBN:
9780191844300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199595068.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

At a phase transition two or more different phases may coexist, such as vapour and liquid. Phase transitions can be classified according to their order. A phase transition is of first order if going ... More


Introduction

Giuseppe Mussardo

in Statistical Field Theory: An Introduction to Exactly Solved Models in Statistical Physics

Published in print:
2020
Published Online:
May 2020
ISBN:
9780198788102
eISBN:
9780191830082
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198788102.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

Chapter 1 introduces various essential ideas on second-order phase transitions and the theoretical challenges that accompany them. Furthermore, it focuses on important issues, for example, ... More


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