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The brain mechanisms underlying emotion

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion Explained

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

Brain organization for emotion — how emotional states are implemented in our brains, and the function of different brain regions in emotion — is one of the topics of this chapter. This chapter ... More


The brain mechanisms underlying emotion

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion and Decision-making Explained

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199659890
eISBN:
9780191772078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659890.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and other brain regions in emotion and its disorders including depression are described.


Hunger

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion Explained

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter covers peripheral signals for hunger and satiety. Internal regulators of appetite and body weight are described, such as hormones including leptin. Brain mechanisms are explained and the ... More


The orbitofrontal cortex

Edmund T. Rolls

in The Prefrontal Cortex: Executive and Cognitive Functions

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524410
eISBN:
9780191689192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524410.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses the studies performed with macaques and humans to understand the function of the orbitofrontal cortex. It elaborates its connections with the primary taste cortex and the ... More


The Neural Basis of Emotional Decision-Making

Jennifer S. Beer and Jamil P. Bhanji

in Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195316872
eISBN:
9780199893324
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195316872.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

The role of orbitofrontal cortex in emotional decision making has recently been called into question. Recent research that draws on both social psychological and neuroscience approaches (i.e., social ... More


 Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Modulation of Two Distinct Forms of Flexible Cognitive Control: Attentional Set‐Shifting and Reversal Learning

Angela C. Roberts

in Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195314274
eISBN:
9780199786695
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195314274.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Dopamine and serotonin have been implicated in a wide variety of cognitive and emotional control processes. This chapter reviews the evidence that these two neuromodulators differentially regulate ... More


Brain-stimulation reward

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion Explained

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter covers self-stimulation of the brain, which includes the identification of reward systems in the brain, and the hypothalamus, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and ventral striatum.


Neuroeconomics and decision-making

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion and Decision-making Explained

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199659890
eISBN:
9780191772078
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659890.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

Classical microeconomics is reviewed to provide a background to neuroeconomics, which is then considered in terms of how expected value and outcome value are represented in the brain and used as ... More


Emotion and Decision-making Explained

Edmund T. Rolls

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199659890
eISBN:
9780191772078
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199659890.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Development

What produces emotions? Why do we have emotions? How do we have emotions? Why do emotional states feel like something? What is the relation between emotion, and reward value, and subjective feelings ... More


Working Hard or Hardly Working for those Rose-colored Glasses?: Behavioral and Neural Evidence for the Automatic Nature of Unrealistically Positive Self-Perceptions

Jennifer S. Beer

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Even rose-colored glasses cannot hide the apparent discrepancy between models of self-control and the adaptive view of positive illusions. Most models of self-control suggest that accurate ... More


Reversal learning in fronto-striatal circuits: a functional, autonomic, and neurochemical analysis

H.F. Clarke and A.C. Roberts

in Decision Making, Affect, and Learning: Attention and Performance XXIII

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199600434
eISBN:
9780191725623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is intimately associated with the processes underlying behavioural flexibility that allow us to interact successfully with our ever-changing environment. Dysfunction ... More


Emotion, motivation, reward value, pleasure, and their mechanisms

Edmund T. Rolls

in Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198784852
eISBN:
9780191836299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198784852.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Emotions can be defined as states elicited by instrumental reinforcers (rewards and punishers), which are the goals for action. Motivational states can be defined as states in which an instrumental ... More


Noise in the cortex, stability, psychiatric disease, and aging

Edmund T. Rolls

in Cerebral Cortex: Principles of Operation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198784852
eISBN:
9780191836299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198784852.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

Hypotheses are described about how increased or decreased stability of different cortical networks may contribute to psychiatric disorders and to the memory changes in normal aging. In schizophrenia, ... More


Cingulate and orbitofrontal contributions to valuing knowns and unknowns in a changeable world

Mark E. Walton, Peter H. Rudebeck, Timothy E. J. Behrens, and Matthew F. S. Rushworth

in Decision Making, Affect, and Learning: Attention and Performance XXIII

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199600434
eISBN:
9780191725623
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The world that we and other animals inhabit is frequently stochastic, uncertain, and changeable and it is imperative that our brains are able to evaluate and keep track of varying contingencies. ... More


Biopsychological and Neural Processes of Implicit Motivation

Julie L. Hall, Steven J. Stanton, and Oliver C. Schultheiss

in Implicit Motives

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195335156
eISBN:
9780199776955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335156.003.0010
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

In this chapter we provide an overview of recent research on the biopsychological correlates of implicit motives. We review evidence for a role of gonadal steroids (testosterone and estradiol) as ... More


Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

Hannah S. Locke and Todd S. Braver

in Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195391381
eISBN:
9780199776894
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195391381.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Psychology

Motivation is an important component of self-regulation that helps set the effort level an organism is willing to expend to achieve a desired goal. However, motivation is an elusive concept in ... More


Introduction to the orbitofrontal cortex

Edmund T. Rolls

in The Orbitofrontal Cortex

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198845997
eISBN:
9780191881237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845997.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The orbitofrontal cortex has for long been implicated in emotion, though it is only relatively recently that there has been a firm scientific foundation for understanding how it functions, which is ... More


Orbitofrontal cortex: anatomy and connections

Edmund T. Rolls

in The Orbitofrontal Cortex

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198845997
eISBN:
9780191881237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845997.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The anatomical connections of the orbitofrontal cortex are described. The orbitofrontal cortex receives from the end of every sensory hierarchy information about what taste, smell, touch, visual ... More


The rodent orbitofrontal cortex

Edmund T. Rolls

in The Orbitofrontal Cortex

Published in print:
2019
Published Online:
July 2019
ISBN:
9780198845997
eISBN:
9780191881237
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198845997.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The rodent appears to have only agranular orbitofrontal, and not most of the parts present in primates including humans. In addition, many of the pathways involved in reward processing, including the ... More


Imagination and Emotion

Timothy Schroeder and Carl Matheson

in The Architecture of the Imagination: New Essays on Pretence, Possibility, and Fiction

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780199275731
eISBN:
9780191706103
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199275731.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Theorists in the philosophy of art and philosophy of psychology are converging on the view that imagining is a distinct propositional attitude. When one imagines that P (while engaging with a ... More


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