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Keeping Track of Opiate Flows

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter presents a comprehensive model of the world opiate market and charts the immediate after-effects of the Taliban ban, using data from the United Nations and other public sources. It ... More


Colombia: The Emergence of a New Producer

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter explores the emergence of Colombia as an opiate producer during the 1970s. It suggests that some of the factors that contributed to the development of the opiate industry in Colombia are ... More


The Theoretical and Practical Consequences of Variations in Effective Illegality

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter explores the distinctive configuration of the opiate market and heroin trade. It proposes a theoretical model of effective illegality that helps to explain the role of government in ... More


Tajikistan: The Rise of a Narco-State 1

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter traces the rise of Tajikistan as a narco-state. It explains that until the mid 1990s, heroin was virtually unknown in the country and other opiates were not major sources of concern; ... More


Other PET Ligands Used in Epilepsy

William H. Theodore

in Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195342765
eISBN:
9780199863617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342765.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

PET can be used to image neurotransmitter receptor ligands. Increased mu and delta, and probably decreased kappa opiate receptors have been demonstrated in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). ... More


The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

Heroin is universally considered the world's most harmful illegal drug. This is due not only to the damaging effects of the drug itself, but also to the spread of AIDS tied to its use. Burgeoning ... More


Introduction

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This introductory chapter explains the coverage of this book, which is about opiate production and heroin trafficking around the word. This book provides a comparative analysis of national ... More


The Past as Prologue: The Development of the World Opiate Market and the Rise of the International Control Regime

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter reviews the historical development of the world opiate market, including the international policy regime that surrounds it. It explores the period of growth of the opiate market in the ... More


The Contemporary Market

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter characterizes the contemporary heroin market in terms of its major producers, traffickers, and consumers. It presents an overview of the contemporary world opiate market and ... More


Did the Taliban’s Ban Really Matter?

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter explores the dynamics of the heroin market, as evident in its response to the Taliban opium cutback. It discusses the observed changes in the price and purity of opiates throughout the ... More


Afghanistan and Burma: The Two Dominant Producers

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter examines heroin production in Afghanistan and Burma. It explains that these two countries jointly have been responsible for 70% to 95% of the world's opium supply. It investigates why ... More


India: Diversion from Licit Cultivation

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter focuses on the heroin market in India. Despite the limited involvement of organized crime, the analysis suggests that India is not only the world's largest consumer of illicit opiates ... More


Synthesis of Findings and Lessons for Policy Making

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter

in The World Heroin Market: Can Supply Be Cut?

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195322996
eISBN:
9780199944194
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322996.003.0011
Subject:
Sociology, Law, Crime and Deviance, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the possibility of reducing opiate and heroin production. The result reveals that drug control policy, especially governments' enforcement of ... More


A Neurobiology for the Interactional Instinct

Namhee Lee, Lisa Mikesell, Anna Dina L. Joaquin, Andrea W. Mates, and John H. Schumann

in The Interactional Instinct: The Evolution and Acquisition of Language

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195384246
eISBN:
9780199869916
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195384246.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Sociolinguistics / Anthropological Linguistics

The interactional instinct consists of an appetitive and a consummatory component. The biology underlying consummation develops first and involves the expression of endogenous opiates during ... More


Solomon H. Snyder

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of Solomon H. Snyder. Snyder identified receptors for opiates and neurotransmitters and elucidated mechanisms of drug action. He characterized messenger systems ... More


Pharmacology of emotion, reward, and addiction; the basal ganglia

Edmund T. Rolls

in Emotion Explained

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198570035
eISBN:
9780191693793
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570035.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses dopamine and reward. Addiction is explained: amphetamine, cocaine, and heroin work by activating the ventral striatum and they tap into a system normally involved in ... More


Psychiatry

Iqbal Khan (ed.)

in Title Pages

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
November 2020
ISBN:
9780198747178
eISBN:
9780191916939
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198747178.003.0007
Subject:
Clinical Medicine and Allied Health, Professional Development in Medicine


Neural Precursors as Preferential Targets for Drug Abuse: Long-Term Consequences and Latent Susceptibility to Central Nervous System Disorders

Kurt F. Hauser, Nazira El-Hage, Shreya Buch, Gregory N. Barnes, Henrietta S. Bada, and James R. Pauly

in Brain Development: Normal Processes and the Effects of Alcohol and Nicotine

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195183139
eISBN:
9780199865147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183139.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Considerable evidence suggests that drugs with abuse liability disrupt development by affecting the production of new neurons and glia. The effects of drug abuse are not limited to a particular cell ... More


Coleridge and Opium

NEIL VICKERS

in Coleridge and the Doctors: 1795-1806

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199271177
eISBN:
9780191709647
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199271177.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

This chapter examines the difficult and vexatious topic of Coleridge's dealings with opium during the years 1801–6. Although he was unaware of the risks of addiction to opiates, he knew that the drug ... More


Conditioned Immunomodulation

Jennifer L. Szczytkowski and Donald T. Lysle

in Associative Learning and Conditioning Theory: Human and Non-Human Applications

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199735969
eISBN:
9780199894529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199735969.003.0067
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

It was originally believed that the immune system functioned independently from other regulatory systems of the body; however, recent research has shown that the cells and processes of the immune ... More


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